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A survey of energy-efficient scheduling mechanisms in sensor networks
Published on Oct 1, 2006in Mobile Networks and Applications 2.50
· DOI :10.1007/s11036-006-7798-5
Lan Wang28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Memphis),
Yang Xiao56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Memphis)
Abstract
Sensor networks have a wide range of potential, practical and useful applications. However, there are issues that need to be addressed for efficient operation of sensor network systems in real applications. Energy saving is one critical issue for sensor networks since most sensors are equipped with nonrechargeable batteries that have limited lifetime. To extend the lifetime of a sensor network, one common approach is to dynamically schedule sensors' work/ sleep cycles (or duty cycles). Moreover, in cluster-based networks, cluster heads are usually selected in a way that minimizes the total energy consumption and they may rotate among the sensors to balance energy consumption. In general, these energy-efficient scheduling mechanisms (also called topology configuration mechanisms) need to satisfy certain application requirements while saving energy. In this paper, we provide a survey on energy-efficient scheduling mechanisms in sensor networks that have different design requirements than those in traditional wireless networks. We classify these mechanisms based on their design assumptions and design objectives. Different mechanisms may make different assumptions about their sensors including detection model, sensing area, transmission range, failure model, time synchronization, and the ability to obtain location and distance information. They may also have different assumptions about network structure and sensor deployment strategy. Furthermore, while all the mechanisms have a common design objective to maximize network lifetime, they may also have different objectives determined by their target applications.
  • References (38)
  • Cited By (307)
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References38
Published on Jan 1, 2002 in International Conference on Network Protocols
Fan Ye30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of California, Los Angeles),
Gary Zhong6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of California, Los Angeles)
+ 1 AuthorsLixia Zhang76
Estimated H-index: 76
(University of California, Los Angeles)
Small, inexpensive sensors with limited memory, computing power and short battery lifetimes are turning into reality. Due to adverse conditions such as high noise levels, extreme humidity or temperatures, or even destructions from unfriendly entities, sensor node failures may become norms rather than exceptions in real environments. To be practical, sensor networks must last for much longer times than that of individual nodes, and have yet to be robust against potentially frequent node failures....
891 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2005
Lan Wang28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Memphis),
Yang Xiao56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Memphis)
In this paper, we provide a survey on energy-efficient scheduling mechanisms in sensor networks that have different design requirements than those in traditional wireless networks. We classify these mechanisms based on their design assumptions and design objectives. Different mechanisms may make different assumptions about their sensors including detection model, sensing area, transmission range, failure model, time synchronization, and the ability to obtain location and distance information. Th...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks 0.75
Honghai Zhang11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Jennifer C. Hou40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
In this paper, we address the issues of maintaining sensing coverage and connectivity by keeping a minimum number of sensor nodes in the active mode in wireless sensor networks. We investigate the relationship between coverage and connectivity by solving the following two sub-problems. First, we prove that if the radio range is at least twice the sensing range, complete coverage of a convex area implies connectivity among the working set of nodes. Second, we derive, under the ideal case in which...
1,218 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2002 in International Conference on Computer Communications
Alberto E. Cerpa24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of California, Los Angeles),
Deborah Estrin110
Estimated H-index: 110
(University of California, Los Angeles)
Advances in micro-sensor and radio technology will enable small but smart sensors to be deployed for a wide range of environmental monitoring applications. The low per-node cost will allow these wireless networks of sensors and actuators to be densely distributed. The nodes in these dense networks will coordinate to perform the distributed sensing tasks. Moreover, as described in this paper, the nodes can also coordinate to exploit the redundancy provided by high density, so as to extend overall...
671 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 26, 2004 in ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking
Chao Gui12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of California, Davis),
Prasant Mohapatra43
Estimated H-index: 43
(University of California, Davis)
Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. In this application, the sensor nodes collectively monitor and track the movement of an event or target object. The network operations have two states: the surveillance state during the absence of any event of interest, and the tracking state which is in response to any moving targets. Thus, the power saving operations, which is of critical importance for extending network lifetime, should be operative in two different mode...
456 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 16, 2001 in ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking
Benjie Chen11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Kyle Jamieson24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsRobert Tappan Morris57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
This paper presents Span , a power saving technique for multi-hop ad hoc wireless networks that reduces energy consumption without significantly diminishing the capacity or connectivity of the network. Span builds on the observation that when a region of a shared-channel wireless network bag a sufficient density of nodes, only a small number of them need be on at any time to forward traffic for active connections. Span is a distributed, randomized algorithm where nodes make local decisions on wh...
2,077 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 15, 2004in Computer Networks 2.52
Seema Bandyopadhyay8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Purdue University),
Edward J. Coyle31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Purdue University)
A multi-hop network of wireless sensors can be used to gather spatio-temporal samples of a physical phenomenon and transmit these samples to a processing center. This paper addresses the important issue of minimizing the number of transmissions required to gather one sample from each sensor. The technique used to minimize communication costs combines analytical results from stochastic geometry with a distributed, randomized algorithm for generating clusters of sensors. The minimum communication ...
170 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2005in Mobile Networks and Applications 2.50
Kui Wu26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Victoria),
Yong Gao13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of British Columbia)
+ 1 AuthorsYang Xiao56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Memphis)
Wireless sensor networks consist of a large number of tiny sensors that have only limited energy supply. One of the major challenges in constructing such networks is to maintain long network lifetime as well as sufficient sensing areas. To achieve this goal, a broadly-used method is to turn off redundant sensors. In this paper, the problem of estimating redundant sensing areas among neighbouring wireless sensors is analysed. We present simple methods to estimate the degree of redundancy without ...
180 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 19, 2003
Chi-Fu Huang17
Estimated H-index: 17
(National Chiao Tung University),
Yu-Chee Tseng58
Estimated H-index: 58
(National Chiao Tung University)
One fundamental issue in sensor networks is the coverage problem, which reflects how well a sensor network is monitored or tracked by sensors. In this paper, we formulate this problem as a decision problem, whose goal is to determine whether every point in the service area of the sensor network is covered by at least k sensors, where k is a predefined value. The sensing ranges of sensors can be unit disks or non-unit disks. We present polynomial-time algorithms, in terms of the number of sensors...
639 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2002in Wireless Networks 1.98
Benjie Chen11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Kyle Jamieson24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsRobert Tappan Morris57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
This paper presents Span, a power saving technique for multi-hop ad hoc wireless networks that reduces energy consumption without significantly diminishing the capacity or connectivity of the network. Span builds on the observation that when a region of a sharedchannel wireless network has a sufficient density of nodes, only a small number of them need be on at any time to forward traffic for active connections. Span is a distributed, randomized algorithm where nodes make local decisions on whet...
755 Citations Source Cite
Cited By307
Published on Jan 1, 2011
János Csirik25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Szeged),
Horst Bunke62
Estimated H-index: 62
(University of Bern)
Feature selection is a classical problem in the discipline of pattern recognition, for which many solutions have been proposed in the literature. In the current paper we consider feature selection in the context of pattern classification in wireless sensor networks. One of the main objectives in the design of wireless sensor networks is to keep the energy consumption of sensors low. This is due to the restricted battery capacity of today’s sensors. Assuming that the features of a pattern recogni...
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Ubiquitous computing has become a widespread phenomenon in today’s modern world, with the computing technology integrating with our daily life in an invisible manner. Embedded systems and wireless sensor networks are popular choices to achieve this. Programming embedded and sensor network systems has always been a challenge for the programmers due to the lack of sufficient high-level programming support. To deal with this serious limitation, we have developed DESAL (Dynamic Embedded Sensing and ...
Published on Jan 1, 2010
Benyuan Liu27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Massachusetts Lowell),
Jie Wang21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Massachusetts Lowell),
Anwar Saipulla6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Coverage problems, including point coverage, area coverage, and barrier coverage, are important issues in wireless sensor networks. Different from point coverage that covers specific points of interest, and from area coverage that covers the entire region, barrier coverage aims at detecting intruders that attempt to cross the network. It requires a chain of sensors across the deployed region with the sensing areas of adjacent sensors overlapping each other. Each independent chain of sensors is a...
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Published on Apr 11, 2011
János Csirik25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Szeged),
Peter Bertholet2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Bern),
Horst Bunke62
Estimated H-index: 62
(University of Bern)
In the current paper we consider the task of object classification in wireless sensor networks. Assuming that each feature needed for classification is acquired by a sensor, a new approach is proposed that aims at minimizing the number of features used for classification while maintaining a given correct classification rate. In particular, we address the case where a sensor may have a failure before its battery is exhausted. In experiments with data from the UCI repository, the feasibility of th...
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Guanxiong Shi2
Estimated H-index: 2
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Guofang Nan10
Estimated H-index: 10
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+ 1 AuthorsRong Rong1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Tianjin University)
Sleep/wake scheduling is an essential consideration in sensor network applications. Finding an optimal sleep/wake scheduling strategy that would minimize computation and communication overhead, be resilient to node failures, and provide high-quality data service is extremely challenging. In this paper, we present and compare several state-of-the-art algorithms and techniques that aim to address the sleep/wake scheduling issue, which are divided into distributed and centralized manners. Meanwhile...
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Published on Jan 1, 2009
Yu Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation),
Eric Fleury11
Estimated H-index: 11
(French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation)
We investigate scheduling activities in sensor networks; the materials covered are far beyond medium access control (MAC) protocols and the purpose is not to review specific or general purpose MAC approaches. Our purpose is more generic and we investigate scheduling strategies and techniques that could be applied to avoid interference, to prolong the network lifetime by reducing energy consumption, to optimize network performance by taking into account the underlying application communication pa...
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Published on Jan 1, 2013
Leqiang Bai1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shenyang Jianzhu University),
Jialin Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shenyang Jianzhu University),
Shihong Zhang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shenyang Jianzhu University)
In order to improve ZigBee network forward efficiency, this paper presents ZigBee improving multicast routing algorithm (ZIMR). On the basis of Z-Stack multicast algorithm, ZIMR algorithm combines with the ZigBee distributed addressing assignment scheme, optimizing the multicast forwarding node selection and making a node send the information to more destination nodes. Simulation results prove that under the same circumstances the existing algorithm for multicast forwarding consumes more forward...
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Rakhi Khedikar1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Avichal Kapur1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
M. D. Chawan (Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management)
Recently wireless sensor network (WSN) is very popular for monitoring the remote or hostile environments. One major challenge in WSN is to build energy efficient network with total coverage & connectivity. The WSN consist of a large number of tiny nodes having sensing, computation & communication capability. The deployment of sensor nodes is the first step in establishing a sensor network. The large number of sensor nodes are deployed randomly & must be in the form of cluster, as a location of e...
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Published on Jan 1, 2009
Jae-Hyun Park (Chung-Ang University), Regular Member
In this paper, we present a distributed fault-tolerant topology control protocol that configure a wireless sensor network to achieve k-connectivity and (k+1)-coverage. One fundamental issue in sensor networks is to maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity in order to support different applications and environments, while some least active nodes are on duty. Topology control algorithms have been proposed to maintain network connectivity while improving energy efficiency and increas...
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