Branding/Logomark minus Citation Combined Shape Icon/Bookmark-empty Icon/Copy Icon/Collection Icon/Close Copy 7 no author result Created with Sketch. Icon/Back Created with Sketch. Match!

The effect of microgravity on protein crystal growth

Published on Jan 1, 1991in Advances in Space Research 1.75
· DOI :10.1016/0273-1177(91)90305-4
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Aaron Greenwood10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
John Day15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract Based on the results of microgravity crystallization experiments using the protein canavalin aboard four separate U.S. space shuttle missions, we present visual observations and diffraction data that support the contention that protein crystals of improved quality can be obtained in a microgravity environment. With canavalin, no significant increase in resolution was noted, but an overall improvement in diffraction quality, as judged by statistical analyses of the data, was clear. We present the hypothesis that this improvement in quality may be due primarily to the elimination of defects and dislocations rather than an overall enhancement of order. We further suggest that the mechanism for this improvement may be microgravity stabilized depletion zones that develop around growing crystals that establish and maintain optimal growth conditions more rapidly following nucleation. Such zones would be destroyed by convective flow effects in earth's gravity.
  • References (15)
  • Citations (11)
Cite
References15
Newest
Published on Nov 3, 1989in Science 41.04
Od Lawrence J. DeLucas PhD2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UA: University of Alabama),
Cd Smith1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UA: University of Alabama)
+ 7 AuthorsF. R. Salemme20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UA: University of Alabama)
The crystals of most proteins or other biological macromolecules are poorly ordered and diffract to lower resolutions than those observed for most crystals of simple organic and inorganic compounds. Crystallization in the microgravity environment of space may improve crystal quality by eliminating convection effects near growing crystal surfaces. A series of 11 different protein crystal growth experiments was performed on U.S. space shuttle flight STS-26 in September 1988. The microgravity-grown...
Published on Jul 1, 1988in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
R. Boistelle20
Estimated H-index: 20
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Jean-Pierre Astier13
Estimated H-index: 13
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
Abstract Crystallization from solution is a sequence of events which occur more or less consecutively but are rarely completely unconnected. The present contribution is a survey of nucleation, growth, phase transition, habit modification and ripening. Its aim is to provide a theoretical basis to biochemists who intend to approach crystallization.
Published on Jul 1, 1988in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
R. S. Feigelson40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Stanford University)
Abstract Over the past 40 years scientists and engineers working on the crystal growth of small molecule materials have developed a strong theoretical background and an impressive array of crystal growth technologies to aid in the growth of a wide variety of materials having extremely diverse properties. One of the major issues brought up at the First International Conference on Protein Crystal Growth at Stanford University in August 1985 was whether these pre-existing theories and techniques wo...
Published on Jan 22, 1988in Science 41.04
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Paul J. Shlichta10
Estimated H-index: 10
(California Institute of Technology)
Fifty different mineral samples were tested as potential heterogeneous or epitaxial nucleants for four commonly crystallized proteins. It was found, by conventional protein crystallization techniques, that for each protein there was a set of mineral substrates that promoted nucleation of crystals at lower critical levels of supersaturation than required for spontaneous growth. Numerous examples, involving all four proteins, were observed of modification of crystal habit and, in some cases, unit ...
Published on Jul 1, 1987in Trends in Biotechnology 13.75
L.J. DeLucas1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
C.E. Bugg1
Estimated H-index: 1
Major advances in the technology involved in determining protein crystal structures have facilitated several new and existing applications for protein crystallography. Protein crystal growth, the one major bottleneck in this field, has recently received much attention and several new developments hold promise for the future.
Published on Aug 1, 1986in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Marc L. Pusey26
Estimated H-index: 26
(MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center),
Robert J. Naumann8
Estimated H-index: 8
(MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center)
Abstract A method has been devised for immobilizing protein crystals in small volumes under defined conditions in order to determine growth rates on various faces. Using this method, we have investigated the growth kinetics of the [110] face of tetragonal hens egg white lysozyme crystals at varying degrees of bulk supersaturation. The growth rate data were analyzed using a simple convective-diffusive model to determine an empirical relationship between growth rate and local supersaturation at th...
Published on Aug 1, 1986in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Lawrence J. DeLucas24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
F.L. Suddath5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
+ 10 AuthorsBill Nelson1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Protein crystal growth in space is of interest because of the potential applications for unique studies of crystallization processes. Theoretical and experimental research indicates that gravitational fields produce density-driven convective flow patterns which can influence crystal growth, and these convective effects can be controlled under microgravity conditions. Microgravity can also be used to control sedimentation effects. As part of a program to investigate the influence of grav...
Published on Aug 1, 1986in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Paul J. Shlichta10
Estimated H-index: 10
(California Institute of Technology)
Abstract This paper summarizes the feasibility of using optical techniques for mapping the convection, temperature, and solute concentration in the solution around a growing protein crystal. Convection can be mapped by a variety of techniques which measure either refractive index differences, displacements, velocity, or solute optical absorption. For protein crystal growth, however, ordinary schlieren and interferometric techniques are marginally sensitive and most displacement marking technique...
Published on Aug 1, 1986in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Walter Littke5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Freiburg),
Christina John3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Freiburg)
Abstract Crystal growth conditions for proteins under microgravity were investigated with two model compounds (β-galactosidase and lysozyme). The single crystals obtained have been found to be significantly larger than those prepared in the same environment on earth.
Published on Jul 13, 1984in Science 41.04
Walter Littke5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Freiburg),
Christina John3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Freiburg)
The preparation of suitably large protein single crystals is essentially the rate-determining step of protein x-ray structure determinations. Attempts to produce single crystals with two model compounds—β-galactosidase and lysozyme—under conditions of microgravity were successful. Crystals formed by salting out from solutions kept free of convection were 27 and 1000 times larger in volume, respectively, than those produced in the same apparatus but exposed to terrestrial gravitation.
Cited By11
Newest
Published on Nov 1, 2015
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
,
Lawrence J. DeLucas24
Estimated H-index: 24
Published on Feb 6, 2013in Crystal Growth & Design 4.15
Alaa Adawy6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
Etienne Rebuffet4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 3 AuthorsE. Vlieg31
Estimated H-index: 31
Macromolecular crystallography is the most direct and accurate approach to determine the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules. The growth of high quality single crystals, yielding diffraction to the highest X-ray resolution, remains a bottleneck in this methodology. Here we show that through a modification of the batch crystallization method, an entirely convection-free crystallization environment is achieved, which enhances the purity and crystallinity of protein crystals. T...
Published on Jan 1, 2013in CrystEngComm 3.38
Alaa Adawy6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
Kess Marks2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
+ 2 AuthorsE. Vlieg31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
The growth of high quality protein crystals is essential for the determination of their structure. This process is governed by many physical factors such as mass transport and solution flow. The quality of the crystals is usually better under diffusion-limited growth conditions, where a depleted zone of the solution encapsulates the crystal. We developed a Mach–Zehnder-based phase shifting interferometer coupled to image processing software to study the concentration gradients which develop arou...
Published on Sep 1, 2009in Crystallography Reports 0.75
E. A. Smirnova5
Estimated H-index: 5
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences),
Yu. A. Kislitsyn2
Estimated H-index: 2
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
+ 5 AuthorsI. P. Kuranova13
Estimated H-index: 13
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
Experiments on protein crystallization on the Russian segment of the International Space Station were started in 2005. These experiments were performed in the Modul’-1 protein crystallization apparatus specially designed for crystal growth by the free-interface-diffusion method. This paper describes experiments on the crystallization of lysozyme, carboxypeptidase B, and recombinant human insulin on Earth and in microgravity using the Modul’-1 protein crystallization apparatus during the ISS-11-I...
Published on Jan 1, 2000in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Bernard Lorber28
Estimated H-index: 28
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
J.D. Ng7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
+ 1 AuthorsRichard Giegé53
Estimated H-index: 53
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
As part of a study of the effects of microgravity on protein crystallization, the growth of tetragonal crystals of thaumatin was monitored by CCD-time-lapse video in environments where convection is negligible. In Space Shuttle missions entitled United States Microgravity Laboratory-2 and Life and Microgravity Sciences, free interface diffusion and dialysis techniques were utilized to grow crystals in the advanced protein crystallization facility (APCF). Ng et al. (Acta Crystallogr. D 53 (1997) ...
Published on Jan 1, 1999in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCI: University of California, Irvine),
Alexander J. Malkin22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
+ 5 AuthorsGreg Lawson1
Estimated H-index: 1
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have revealed that macromolecular crystals, during their growth, incorporate an extensive array of impurities. These vary from individual molecules to large particles, and microcrystals in the micron size range. AFM, along with X-ray topology, has further shown that the density of defects and faults in most macromolecular crystals is very high in comparison with conventional crystals. The high defect density is a consequence of the incorporation of im...
Published on Jan 1, 1996
R. Monti1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
R. Savino1
Estimated H-index: 1
A fluid-dynamic model of the hanging (or sitting) drop is proposed to study the time evolution of the thermo-solutal flow fields in protein crystallyzers. An Order of Magnitude Analysis of the vapour phase surrounding the drop shows that buoyancy effects are negligible in the vaporization chamber and that the evaporation is a very fast process, so that the rate of evaporation is controlled essentially by water diffusion through the air space. The liquid drop is modelled as a mixture of water, pr...
Published on Dec 1, 1993in Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews 2.57
Barry L. Stoddard59
Estimated H-index: 59
(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center),
Gregory K. Farber22
Estimated H-index: 22
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University),
Roland K. Strong45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)
Published on Oct 1, 1992in Protein Science 2.42
John Day15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Macromolecular crystal growth experiments, using satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) and canavalin from jack beans as samples, were conducted on a US Space Shuttle mission designated International Microgravity Laboratory — 1 (IML-1), flown January 22–29, 1992. Parallel experiments using identical samples were carried out in both a vapor diffusion-based device (PCG) and a liquid-liquid diffusion-based instrument (CRYOSTAT). The experiments in each device were run at 20–22 °C and at colder tempe...
Published on Aug 1, 1992in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Because the variable set is so extensive over which successful crystallization conditions must be sought, and because the amount of protein available is often severely limiting, it is essential to conduct as efficient and economical a series of initial trials as possible. One approach to this problem is to set out a selection of parallel trials using a minimum quantity of protein to identify as quickly as possible the type of precipitant, pH, and temperature likely to yield useful resul...