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Trends and variability in summer sea ice cover in the Canadian Arctic based on the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive, 1960–2008 and 1968–2008

Published on Mar 5, 2011in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
· DOI :10.1029/2009JC005855
Adrienne Tivy9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(EC: Environment Canada)
+ 5 AuthorsJohn J. Yackel20
Estimated H-index: 20
(U of C: University of Calgary)
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Abstract
[1] The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is a compilation of weekly ice charts covering Canadian waters from the early 1960s to present. The main sources of uncertainty in the database are reviewed and the data are validated for use in climate studies before trends and variability in summer averaged sea ice cover are investigated. These data revealed that between 1968 and 2008, summer sea ice cover has decreased by 11.3% ± 2.6% decade−1 in Hudson Bay, 2.9% ± 1.2% decade−1 in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), 8.9% ± 3.1% decade−1 in Baffin Bay, and 5.2% ± 2.4% decade−1 in the Beaufort Sea with no significant reductions in multiyear ice. Reductions in sea ice cover are linked to increases in early summer surface air temperature (SAT); significant increases in SAT were observed in every season and they are consistently greater than the pan-Arctic change by up to ∼0.2°C decade−1. Within the CAA and Baffin Bay, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation index correlates well with multiyear ice coverage (positive) and first-year ice coverage (negative) suggesting that El Nino episodes precede summers with more multiyear ice and less first-year ice. Extending the trend calculations back to 1960 along the major shipping routes revealed significant decreases in summer sea ice coverage ranging between 11% and 15% decade−1 along the route through Hudson Bay and 6% and 10% decade−1 along the southern route of the Northwest Passage, the latter is linked to increases in SAT. Between 1960 and 2008, no significant trends were found along the northern western Parry Channel route of the Northwest Passage.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (90)
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References36
Newest
Published on May 21, 2009in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Claude R. Duguay29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Thorsten Markus35
Estimated H-index: 35
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)
[1] Sea ice conditions and melt season duration within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) were investigated from 1979–2008. The CAA is exhibiting statistically significant decreases in average September total sea ice area at −8.7% decade−1. The melt season duration within the CAA is increasing significantly at 7 days decade−1. 2008 represented the longest melt season duration within the CAA over the satellite record at 129 days. Average September multi-year ice (MYI) area is decreasing at −6....
Published on Apr 1, 2009in Journal of Climate4.80
Tessa Sou6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Gregory M. Flato25
Estimated H-index: 25
Abstract Considering the recent losses observed in Arctic sea ice and the anticipated future warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, sea ice retreat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is expected and indeed is already being observed. As most global climate models do not resolve the CAA region, a fine-resolution ice–ocean regional model is developed and used to make a projection of future changes in the CAA sea ice. Results from a historical run (1950–2004) are used to evalua...
Published on Sep 18, 2008in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Adrienne Tivy9
Estimated H-index: 9
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 2 AuthorsClaude R. Duguay29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Waterloo)
[1] Estimates of annual sea ice melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration are made within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) using SeaWinds/QuikSCAT data from 2000 to 2007. The average date of melt onset occurred on day 150, the average freeze onset occurred on day 266, and the average number of days of melt was 116. Melt onset occurred first, and freeze onset occurred last within the Amundsen, Western Arctic Waterway, and Eastern Parry Channel regions, whereas the reverse occurred in the Q...
Published on Jul 16, 2008in The Cryosphere4.79
Mark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences),
Andrew P. Barrett23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)
+ 2 AuthorsMarika M. Holland51
Estimated H-index: 51
(NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research)
Abstract. Rises in surface and lower troposphere air temperatures through the 21st century are projected to be especially pronounced over the Arctic Ocean during the cold season. This Arctic amplification is largely driven by loss of the sea ice cover, allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Consistent with observed reductions in sea ice extent, fields from both the NCEP/NCAR and JRA-25 reanalyses point to emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification in the last d...
Published on Jul 1, 2008in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Claire L. Parkinson39
Estimated H-index: 39
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center),
Donald J. Cavalieri41
Estimated H-index: 41
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)
Analyses of 28 years (1979-2006) of Antarctic sea ice extents and areas derived from satellite passive microwave radiometers are presented and placed in the context of results obtained previously for the 20-year period 1979-1998. We present monthly averaged sea ice extents and areas, monthly deviations, yearly and seasonal averages, and their trends for the Southern Hemisphere as a whole and for each of five sectors: the Weddell Sea, the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, the Ross Sea, and...
Published on Feb 5, 2008in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
R. Kowk60
Estimated H-index: 60
(California Institute of Technology)
[1] We demonstrate that sea ice motion in summer can be derived reliably from the 18GHz channel of the AMSR-E instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. The improved spatial resolution of this channel with its lower sensitivity to atmospheric moisture seems to have alleviated various issues that have plagued summer motion retrievals from shorter wavelength observations. Two spatial filters improve retrieval quality: one reduces some of the microwave signatures associated with synoptic-scale weather sy...
Published on May 16, 2007in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
Julienne C. Stroeve46
Estimated H-index: 46
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences),
Marika M. Holland51
Estimated H-index: 51
(NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research)
+ 2 AuthorsMark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)
[1] From 1953 to 2006, Arctic sea ice extent at the end of the melt season in September has declined sharply. All models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) show declining Arctic ice cover over this period. However, depending on the time window for analysis, none or very few individual model simulations show trends comparable to observations. If the multi-model ensemble mean time series provides a true representation of forced change...
Published on Mar 16, 2007in Science41.04
Mark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences),
Marika M. Holland51
Estimated H-index: 51
(NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research),
Julienne C. Stroeve46
Estimated H-index: 46
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)
Linear trends in arctic sea-ice extent over the period 1979 to 2006 are negative in every month. This ice loss is best viewed as a combination of strong natural variability in the coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere system and a growing radiative forcing associated with rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the latter supported by evidence of qualitative consistency between observed trends and those simulated by climate models over the same period. Although the large scatter between in...
Published on Dec 1, 2006in Atmosphere-ocean1.17
David E. Atkinson16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Ross Brown30
Estimated H-index: 30
(MSC: Meteorological Service of Canada)
+ 17 AuthorsRoy M. Koerner30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Geological Survey of Canada)
Abstract As of 2003, the warmest year on record in Canada (and globally) was 1998. Extensive warming was observed over the Canadian Arctic during the summer of 1998. A collaborative, interdisciplinary project involving government, universities, and the private sector examined the effect of this unusual warmth on cryospheric conditions and documented the responses, placing them in a 30–40 year context. This paper represents a synthesis of these results. 1998 was characterized by a melt season of ...
Cited By90
Newest
Published on May 1, 2019in Quaternary Science Reviews4.64
Paul Szpak15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Trent University),
James M. Savelle18
Estimated H-index: 18
(McGill University)
+ 1 AuthorsMichael P. Richards4
Estimated H-index: 4
(SFU: Simon Fraser University)
Abstract Environmental change in the Arctic has been a primary topic of interest in recent years, particularly as it relates to the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. Sea ice is of particular importance in this context, both in terms of the effects of climate change in the Arctic, but also globally. Most studies examining the responses of various components of the biosphere to warming temperatures necessarily have a short temporal perspective. The purpose of this study was to use stab...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Science Advances
Alison J. Cook14
Estimated H-index: 14
(U of O: University of Ottawa),
Luke Copland23
Estimated H-index: 23
(U of O: University of Ottawa)
+ 5 AuthorsM. R. van den Broeke65
Estimated H-index: 65
(UU: Utrecht University)
The Canadian Arctic Archipelago contains >300 glaciers that terminate in the ocean, but little is known about changes in their frontal positions in response to recent changes in the ocean-climate system. Here, we examine changes in glacier frontal positions since the 1950s and investigate the relative influence of oceanic temperature versus atmospheric temperature. Over 94% of glaciers retreated between 1958 and 2015, with a region-wide trend of gradual retreat before ~2000, followed by a fivefo...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
M. Ahmed (U of C: University of Calgary), Brent Else19
Estimated H-index: 19
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 1 AuthorsTim Papakyriakou27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UM: University of Manitoba)
Published on Feb 6, 2019in The Cryosphere4.79
Charles Gignac1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Institut national de la recherche scientifique),
Monique Bernier17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Institut national de la recherche scientifique),
Karem Chokmani13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Institut national de la recherche scientifique)
Abstract. A reliable knowledge and assessment of the sea ice conditions and their evolution in time is a priority for numerous decision makers in the domains of coastal and offshore management and engineering as well as in commercial navigation. As of today, countless research projects aimed at both modelling and mapping past, actual and future sea ice conditions were completed using sea ice numerical models, statistical models, educated guesses or remote sensing imagery. From this research, rel...
Published on Dec 1, 2018
Serge Payette45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Laval University),
Vanessa Pilon4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Laval University),
Mathieu Frégeau3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Laval University)
The Arctic tundra extends beyond the treeline north of 58°N in eastern North America and north of 66°N in western North America and Eurasia. A marked exception to this distribution is the azonal tundra situated as far south as 54°30′–45′N, in the Pointe-Louis-XIV area (JABA), along the fast-rising coasts of James Bay–Hudson Bay. The unusual position of JABA calls into question the influence of climate as the main causal factor for its existence. Macrocharcoal remains extracted from tundra and fo...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing5.63
Mallik Sezan Mahmud5
Estimated H-index: 5
(U of C: University of Calgary),
Torsten Geldsetzer12
Estimated H-index: 12
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 3 AuthorsRandall K. Scharien13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UVic: University of Victoria)
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) incidence angle has a significant effect on the microwave backscatter from sea ice. This paper investigates the incidence angle dependence of C- and L-band HH-polarized microwave backscatter coefficient over Arctic first-year sea ice (FYI) and multiyear sea ice (MYI) in winter. Advanced Land Observation Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band) images are used to derive ice type-specific incidence angle dependencies calculated using li...
Published on Apr 4, 2018in The Cryosphere4.79
Lawrence Mudryk9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Chris Derksen30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 6 AuthorsRoss Brown30
Estimated H-index: 30
The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. ...
Published on Mar 7, 2018in The Cryosphere Discussions
Frédéric Laliberté7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 2 AuthorsJi Lei1
Estimated H-index: 1
Arctic landfast ice extent and duration from observations, ice assimilations, ocean re-analyses and coupled models are examined. From observations and assimilations, it is shown that in areas where landfast ice conditions last more than 5 months the first-year ice grows typically to more than 2 m and is rarely less than 1 m. The observed spatial distribution of landfast ice closely matches assimilation products but less so for ocean re-analyses and coupled models. Although models generally strug...
Published on Mar 1, 2018in Environmental Reviews3.96
James D. Ford42
Estimated H-index: 42
(McGill University),
N. Couture9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NRCan: Natural Resources Canada)
+ 1 AuthorsDylan G. Clark4
Estimated H-index: 4
(McGill University)
This paper identifies and characterizes current knowledge on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability for Canada’s northern coastline, outlining key research gaps. Warming temperatures and increased precipitation have been documented across the northern coast, with the rate of sea ice decline ranging from 2.9% to 10.4% per decade. Storm intensity and frequency is increasing, and permafrost is warming across the region. Many of these changes are projected to accelerate in the future,...