The Research and Motor octane numbers of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Published on Jun 1, 2013in Fuel5.128
· DOI :10.1016/j.fuel.2013.01.072
Kai Morganti13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Melbourne),
Tien Mun Foong6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Melbourne)
+ 3 AuthorsFrederick L. Dryer70
Estimated H-index: 70
(Princeton University)
Abstract This paper presents an experimental study of the Research (RON) and Motor (MON) octane numbers of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). A comprehensive set of RON and MON data for mixtures of propane, propylene (propene), n-butane and iso-butane are presented, using a method that is consistent with the currently active ASTM Research and Motor test methods for liquid fuels. Empirical models which relate LPG composition to its RON and MON are then developed, such that the simplest relationships between the constituent species’ mole fractions and the mixture octane rating are achieved. This is used to determine the degree of non-linearity between the composition and the RON and MON of different LPG mixtures. Finally, implications for LPG fuel quality standards are discussed briefly, as part of a suggested, more substantial undertaking by the community which also revisits the standard test procedures for measuring the RON and MON of LPG.
  • References (25)
  • Citations (37)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
15 Citations
44 Citations
109 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
2 Citations
#1Stephen M. Thompson (Royal Dutch Shell)H-Index: 1
#2Gary Alan Robertson (Royal Dutch Shell)H-Index: 1
Last. Eric JohnsonH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
The article contains sections titled: 1. Introduction 2. Properties 3. Production and Processing 3.1. Recovery Sources 3.2. Recontacting - Compression 3.3. Refrigeration 3.3.1. Low-Temperature Separation (LTS) 3.3.2. Expander Plants 3.3.3. Combined Processes 3.4. Lean Oil Absorption 3.5. Adsorption 3.6. Production of Biopropane 4. Purification 5. Storage and Transportation 6. Uses 7. Safety Aspects 8. Economic Aspects
23 CitationsSource
#1Seungmook OhH-Index: 13
#2Seokhwan LeeH-Index: 11
Last. Kyoung-Ok ChaH-Index: 3
view all 6 authors...
16 CitationsSource
#1R. Muthu Shanmugam (Tata Motors)H-Index: 2
#2Nilesh M. Kankariya (Tata Technologies)H-Index: 1
Last. Dias Christian (Valeo)H-Index: 1
view all 8 authors...
11 CitationsSource
#1Vikram Mittal (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 4
#2John B. Heywood (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 46
51 CitationsSource
#1Mark PecqueurH-Index: 4
Last. Dimitrios SavvidisH-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
5 CitationsSource
#1Vikram Mittal (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 4
#2John B. Heywood (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 46
42 CitationsSource
#1Nabil Lamia (University of Porto)H-Index: 8
#2Luc Wolff (Institut Français)H-Index: 3
Last. Alírio E. Rodrigues (University of Porto)H-Index: 66
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The separation of propane‐propylene mixture is the most energy consuming operation in the petrochemical industry. Various studies have been investigated to relieve the cryogenic distillation ordinarily used for this separation, and the adsorption technology appeared to be a promising option. Considering the encouraging results obtained by cyclic adsorption processes and notably by pressure swing adsorption, the simulated moving bed (SMB) has been suggested as a new and competitive alter...
31 CitationsSource
We present a model that predicts the research and motor octane numbers of a wide variety of gasoline process streams and their blends including oxygenates based on detailed composition. The octane number is correlated to a total of 57 hydrocarbon lumps measured by gas chromatography. The model is applicable to any gasoline fuel regardless of the refining process it originates from. It is based on the analysis of 1471 gasoline fuels from different naphtha process streams such as reformates, cat-n...
133 CitationsSource
#1Paul J. Baker (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 10
#2Harry C. Watson (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 21
17 CitationsSource
Cited By37
#1Suroto MunaharH-Index: 1
Last. Joga Dharma Setiawan (UNDIP: Diponegoro University)H-Index: 8
view all 5 authors...
This article presents an investigation of air–fuel ratio (AFR) controllers applied to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuelled vehicles with second-generation LPG kits. When a vehicle is running on a down-way, fuel consumption tends to be rich because of the increased vacuum in the intake manifold. Therefore, an AFR controller was developed that can work based on a vehicle’s tilt sensor combined with an oxygen sensor. AFR controllers are employed to regulate injectors to form leaner mixtures. We te...
#1Dong He (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 1
#2Zhimin Peng (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 8
Last. Yanjun Ding (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Abstract In order to research kinetics properties of hydrogen-enriched n-butane mixtures, this study measured the ignition delay time of nC 4 H 10 /H 2 mixtures in shock tube tests and time-resolved CO 2 concentrations during combustion process by combining laser absorption diagnostics. The experimental data were compared with numerical predictions from three kinetic mechanisms, and the modified NUIG Mech shows improved performances in predicting ignition delay time and time-resolved CO 2 concen...
1 CitationsSource
#1Agnieszka Jach (Warsaw University of Technology)H-Index: 1
#2W. Rudy (Warsaw University of Technology)H-Index: 5
Last. Andrzej Teodorczyk (Warsaw University of Technology)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The main aim of the work was to assess the performance of selected detailed reaction mechanisms (DRM) with regard to calculating the ignition delay times (IDTs) of C2–C6 alkenes and acetylene. To carry out the analysis an extensive literature review was done in order to collect ignition delay time data. The data included IDTs obtained with shock tubes only, giving in total 1206 experimental points for acetylene, ethene, propene, 1-,2-, iso-butene, 1-penten and 1-hexene. To minimize the ...
#1Joshua Lacey (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 8
#2Harjon Aditiya (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 1
Last. S Ryan (Ford Motor Company)H-Index: 3
view all 8 authors...
This article presents an experimental and thermodynamic analysis of the direct injection of propane in an optically accessible variant of a downsized production engine. Propane is used as a surroga...
1 CitationsSource
#1Eric Monroe (SNL: Sandia National Laboratories)H-Index: 3
#2John M. Gladden (LBNL: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)H-Index: 14
Last. Anthe George (LBNL: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)H-Index: 16
view all 7 authors...
Abstract This work describes the first documented case of an effect defined herein as “octane hyperboosting” by an oxygenated fuel compound, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol (prenol). Octane hyperboosting is characterized by the Research Octane Number (RON) of a mixture (e.g. an oxygenate biofuel blended into gasoline) exceeding the RON of the individual components in that mixture. This finding counters the widely held assumption that interpolation between the RON values of a pure compound and the base fue...
1 CitationsSource
#1Ahmad Khan (Saudi Aramco)H-Index: 2
#2Kai Morganti (Saudi Aramco)H-Index: 13
Last. Esam Z. Hamad (Saudi Aramco)H-Index: 16
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Improving the efficiency of the internal combustion engine will continue to play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transport sector. One promising technology that offers improved engine efficiency is the Octane-on-Demand (OoD) concept. This engine-fuel system makes use of two fuels with different octane quality to match the specific anti-knock requirements of the engine under different driving conditions. Previous research has mainly focused on enabling...
#1Eshan Singh (KAUST: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 5
#2Kai Morganti (Saudi Aramco)H-Index: 13
Last. Robert W. Dibble (KAUST: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 45
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Natural gas is a high-octane fuel that produces lower CO2 emissions per kilowatt hour than liquid transport fuels, with essentially zero sulfur emissions. Historically, natural gas has mostly been used in power generation and industrial applications. However, there has been a recent shift towards employing natural gas in the transport sector. In many regions, vehicles are retrofitted with compressed natural gas (CNG) systems, enabling operation on both gasoline and natural gas (and theo...
4 CitationsSource
#1Dinarte Santos (Petrobras)H-Index: 1
#2Irionson Antonio Bassani (PUCPR: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná)H-Index: 1
Last. José Antonio Velásquez (UTFPR: Federal University of Technology - Paraná)H-Index: 7
view all 4 authors...
Abstract A procedure for predicting the Critical Compression Ratio (CCR) and the Octane Number (ON) of hydrocarbon fuel blends is presented in this work. Compositional data as well as antiknock characteristics and thermo-physical properties of the constituent hydrocarbons are taken as input parameters for this calculation. The proposed methodology was developed by considering single-step kinetics for the pre-flame reactions taking place within the combustion chamber of the CFR engine, which is t...
#1Zhou Zhang (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 3
#2Yanfei Li (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 17
Last. Shijin Shuai (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 33
view all 7 authors...
Abstract This paper is to investigate the characteristics of trans-critical propane spray compared with the flash boiling spray ejected from a multi-hole injector in a constant volume chamber by using the Schlieren and backlit imaging methods. The fuel temperature ( T f ) is set from 30 °C to 120 °C, injection pressure ( p f ) from 60 bar to 120 bar and ambient pressure ( p a ) from 0.2 bar to 10 bar. The results show that the trans-critical spray has longer vapor penetration and shorter liquid ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Xiaoti Cui (AAU: Aalborg University)H-Index: 5
#2Søren Knudsen Kær (AAU: Aalborg University)H-Index: 32
Abstract Thermodynamic analyses of cracking, partial oxidation (POX), steam reforming (SR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) of butane and propane (for comparison) were performed using the Gibbs free energy minimization method under the reaction conditions of T = 250–1000 °C, steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C) of 0.5–5 and O 2 /HC (hydrocarbon) ratio of 0–2.4. The simulations for the cracking and POX processes showed that olefins and acetylene can be easily generated through the cracking reactions an...
5 CitationsSource