Avoidance mediates the relationship between anxiety and depression over a decade later

Published on Jun 1, 2014in Journal of Anxiety Disorders 3.48
· DOI :10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.03.007
Nicholas C. Jacobson7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pennsylvania State University),
Michelle G. Newman37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Pennsylvania State University)
a b s t r a c t Anxiety and depression are often highly correlated with each other. To explain this connection, the present study examined the longitudinal relationship between earlier anxiety and later depression, using avoidance as a mediator and trauma as a moderator. Participants (N = 6504 adolescents) completed baseline measures of anxiety and depression, a measure of avoidance one year later, a measure of trauma six to eight years later, and a measure of depression 12–14 years later. Analyzed with structural equation models, the results showed that anxiety predicted later depression, and this relationship was partially mediated by avoidance. The relationship between avoidance and depression was not moderated by trauma. Together, these findings suggest that anxiety may influence later depression through avoidance, and this relationship remains unaffected by experiencing a traumatic experience.
  • References (83)
  • Citations (35)
Published on Feb 1, 1997in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Joel David Swendsen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of California, Los Angeles)
This prospective study applied the experience sampling method to test the helplessness-hopelessness theory of anxiety and depression (Alloy, Kelly, Mineka, & Clements, 1990). Forty-four subjects with attributional styles at high or low risk for depression were signaled five times daily by electronic pagers to provide reports of negative events, attributions, and anxious and depressed moods. Consistent with the theory, causal attributions of stability and globality explained increases in depresse...
52 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1998in Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 3.60
Laura D. Seligman2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Virginia Tech),
Thomas H. Ollendick61
Estimated H-index: 61
(Virginia Tech)
Much evidence exists documenting the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders in youth. Furthermore, comorbidity appears to have serious implications both in terms of severity of impairment and course of disorder. Despite this, little is known about the meaning behind the high rate of co-occurrence of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Several conditions exist that may give rise to comorbidity. Specifically, two disorders may be comorbid when there is a high rate of sympto...
169 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 10, 2004
Martin Sundel3
Estimated H-index: 3
Sandra Stone Sundel3
Estimated H-index: 3
PREFACE TO THE STUDENT: HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Course Materials Case Examples The Chapters The Course Posttest Scoring Recommendations for Instructor Use of This Book INTRODUCTION Origins of the Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches Comparing the Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches Characteristics of Behavior Change Approaches Cultural Diversity Chapter 1. SPECIFYING BEHAVIOR Objectives Overt and Covert Behaviors Clarifying Vague Terms and Fuzzy Language Target Behavior Measuring Response...
15 Citations
Published on Oct 1, 1996in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
C. Brown1
Estimated H-index: 1
Herbert C. Schulberg53
Estimated H-index: 53
+ 2 AuthorsHouck Pr14
Estimated H-index: 14
Objective : Major depression occurs with generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in up to 60% of psychiatric and primary care patients. This comorbidity has been associated with greater severity of depression, poorer psychosocial functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes in psychiatric samples. This study examined the clinical outcomes for depressed primary care patients with and without a lifetime anxiety disorder. Method : A total of 157 primary care patients who met criteria for majo...
253 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1997
Karl G. Jöreskog33
Estimated H-index: 33
Dag Sörbom14
Estimated H-index: 14
5,091 Citations
Published on Jun 1, 2002in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Ashley E. Harris1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Appalachian State University),
Lisa Curtin14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Appalachian State University)
Cognitive models of depression propose that negative schemas contribute to depressive symptoms. Early experiences, particularly parenting, have been proposed to influence cognitive schemas and have also been shown to correlate with depression. This study explores the concurrent relationship between retrospective reports of parenting, Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) described by J. E. Young (1994), and symptoms of depression in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 194). The EMSs of defectiven...
128 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1969
John Bowlby32
Estimated H-index: 32
14k Citations
Published on Jun 17, 1988
David H. Barlow92
Estimated H-index: 92
(Boston University)
The Experience of Anxiety: Shadow of Intelligence or Specter of Death? Emotions and Anxiety. The Phenomenon of Panic. Provoking Panic in the Laboratory. Biological Aspects of Anxiety and Panic. The Origins of Panic: True Alarms, False Alarms, and Learned Alarms. The Process and Origins of Anxiety. The Process of Fear and Anxiety Reduction: Affective Therapy. Classification. Diagnosis and Assessment of Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Treatments of Panic and Agoraphobia. Simple Phobia. Post-trauma...
2,601 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Depression and Anxiety 5.04
Melinda F. Cannon10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of New Orleans),
Carl F. Weems47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of New Orleans)
Because of their high comorbidity and strong associations, the distinctiveness of anxiety and depression in youth continues to be debated. In this study we used cluster analysis in a community sample (n=225) of youth to test tripartite model predictions regarding the grouping of individuals based on their levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. Findings were consistent with tripartite model predictions that four groups would emerge (primarily elevated on anxiety symptoms only, elevated on dep...
50 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1994in Journal of Abnormal Psychology 4.64
John B. Jolly9
Estimated H-index: 9
Murray J. Dyck7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Central Queensland University)
+ 1 AuthorsJeffrey N. Wherry10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
In a sample of 159 psychiatric outpatient adults, negative affectivity (NA) was significantly correlated with a broad range of anxiety and depressive symptoms and was not useful for the differentiation of anxiety from depression. Low positive affectivity (PA) was significantly related only to depressive symptoms. Whereas depressive cognitions demonstrated discriminant capability, anxiety cognitions (in isolation) demonstrated nonspecificity. A combination of NA and anxious cognitions significant...
94 Citations Source Cite
Cited By35
Published on Aug 18, 2015in Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 1.13
Robert J. Zeglin4
Estimated H-index: 4
(George Washington University),
Mary R. DeRaedt (George Washington University), Richard P. Lanthier7
Estimated H-index: 7
(George Washington University)
Nearly 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 20 boys under the age of 18 will be the victim of child sexual abuse. As adults, these individuals are more likely to report myriad mental illnesses including depression. Testing the hypothesis that having children would moderate the depressive effects of child sexual abuse, the authors used public-use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave IV (n = 5,114; mean age = 29.00 years; SD = 1.78). Results indicate that having children significantl...
Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2016in Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 1.33
Jonas Ramnerö7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Stockholm University),
Fredrik Folke4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Uppsala University Hospital),
Jonathan W. Kanter29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Washington)
Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral ...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 10, 2015in SAGE Open
Marianna Alesi9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Palermo),
Gaetano Rappo5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Palermo),
Annamaria Pepi9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Palermo)
Insufficient literature has been produced addressing children with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) and gifted intellectual functioning (GIF). The goal of this work is to compare levels of self-esteem, depression, anxiety at school, and insecurity among children with BIF and GIF, and a control group of average intellectual functioning (AIF). There were participants of 104 children (fourth grade of primary school). Analyses revealed that children with BIF showed a lower level of self-est...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Depression and Anxiety 5.04
Nicholas C. Jacobson7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pennsylvania State University),
Michelle G. Newman37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Pennsylvania State University)
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that anxiety reliably predicts later depression, but little has been uncovered about the mechanism underlying this connection. Interpersonal relationships appear to be a viable mechanism of the association as anxiety has been shown to predict later deficits in both close (e.g., "best friendships") and group relationships (e.g., classroom peer groups), and deficits in both close and group relationships have been linked to later depressive symptoms. T...
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journal of Affective Disorders 3.79
Lisa R. Starr15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Rochester),
Catherine B. Stroud13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Williams College),
Yihan I. Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Rochester)
Abstract Background Anxiety often precedes depression. The anxiety response styles theory of comorbidity suggests anxious individuals with a tendency to ruminate or make hopeless attributions about anxiety symptoms (negative anxiety response styles [NARS]) are more vulnerable to subsequent depressive symptoms. However, this theory has never been tested in adolescence, when the anxiety-depression transition may frequently occur, or using an extended (one-year) follow-up period. Method 128 early a...
13 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Pain 5.56
Melanie Noel19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Calgary),
Cornelius B. Groenewald8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Washington)
+ 2 AuthorsTonya M. Palermo38
Estimated H-index: 38
(University of Washington)
Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent c...
17 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Journal of Anxiety Disorders 3.48
Jill Ehrenreich-May16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Miami),
David Rosenfield39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Southern Methodist University)
+ 3 AuthorsDavid H. Barlow92
Estimated H-index: 92
(Boston University)
Abstract A substantial proportion of adolescents are non-responders to well-established treatments for anxiety and depression, and many existent approaches do not adequately address comorbidity. There is a need to develop and evaluate unified treatments for adolescents that flexibly address higher order factors shared among internalizing or emotional disorders. The Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescents (UP-A) is a transdiagnostic treatment that targets shared v...
22 Citations Source Cite
Kanako Ichikura3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Tokyo Medical and Dental University),
Sayaka Kobayashi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Saitama Medical University)
+ 6 AuthorsShin-ichi Suzuki12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Waseda University)
Objective: Many patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators experience depressive symptoms. In addition, avoidance behavior is a common problem among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. We examined the association between avoidance behaviors and depressive symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Method: We conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study with self-completed questionnaires between May 2010 and March 2011. We measured avoidan...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Journal of Affective Disorders 3.79
Nicholas C. Jacobson7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pennsylvania State University),
Kayla A. Lord1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Pennsylvania State University),
Michelle G. Newman37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract Background Prior research has shown that anxiety symptoms predict later depression symptoms following bereavement. Nevertheless, no research has investigated mechanisms of the temporal relationship between anxiety and later depressive symptoms or examined the impact of depressive symptoms on later anxiety symptoms following bereavement. Methods The current study examined perceived emotional social support as a possible mediator between anxiety and depressive symptoms in a bereaved sampl...
7 Citations Source Cite