Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Stroke Mortality: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

Published on Dec 20, 2012in PLOS ONE 2.77
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0052182
Jingyao Fan3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Peking Union Medical College),
Yiqing Song3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Peking University)
+ 2 AuthorsWeili Zhang17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Peking Union Medical College)
Abstract
Background The relationship between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and stroke-related mortality is inconsistent.
  • References (47)
  • Citations (73)
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References47
Published on Feb 1, 2006in Stata Journal 2.16
Nicola Orsini42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Karolinska Institutet),
Rino Bellocco42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Karolinska Institutet),
Sander Greenland101
Estimated H-index: 101
(University of California, Los Angeles)
This paper presents a command, glst, for trend estimation across different exposure levels for either single or multiple summarized case-control, incidence-rate, and cumulative incidence data. This approach is based on constructing an approximate covariance estimate for the log relative risks and estimating a corrected linear trend using generalized least squares. For trend analysis of multiple studies, glst can estimate fixed- and random-effects metaregression models. Copyright 2006 by StataCor...
664 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 1995in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Kaye Foster-Powell7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Sydney),
Janette Brand Miller13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Sydney)
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of foods based on their glycemic effect compared with a standard food. It has been used to classify carbohydrate foods for various applications, including diabetes, sports, and appetite research. The purpose of these tables is to bring together all of the published data on the GIs of individual foods for the convenience of users. In total, there are almost 600 separate entries, including values for most common Western foods, many indigenous foods, and pure su...
368 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2007in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Kevin C. Maki42
Estimated H-index: 42
,
Tia M. Rains18
Estimated H-index: 18
+ 2 AuthorsMichael Davidson107
Estimated H-index: 107
Background: Lowering the dietary glycemic load and increasing protein intake may be advantageous for weight management. Objective: This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effects of an ad libitum reduced-glycemic-load (RGL) diet on body weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers in overweight and obese adults during an initial weight-loss phase (12 wk) and a weight-loss maintenance phase (weeks 24-36). Design: Subjects were assigned to RGL (n = ...
91 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2002in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Barry M. Popkin317
Estimated H-index: 317
(Harvard University),
JoAnn E. Manson230
Estimated H-index: 230
(Harvard University),
Simin Liu100
Estimated H-index: 100
(Harvard University)
459 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2001in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Simin Liu100
Estimated H-index: 100
(Harvard University),
JoAnn E. Manson230
Estimated H-index: 230
(Harvard University)
+ 4 AuthorsBarry M. Popkin317
Estimated H-index: 317
(Harvard University)
Background: In metabolic studies, both greater carbohydrate intakes and higher glycemic indexes (GIs) raise fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. In epidemiologic studies, dietary glycemic load (GL) is positively associated with risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. Objective: We examined both the physiologic relevance of GI and GL and the ability of dietary questionnaires to measure these variables. Design: In the Nurses' Health Study, we measured plasma triacylglycerol concent...
386 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2002in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Simin Liu100
Estimated H-index: 100
,
JoAnn E. Manson230
Estimated H-index: 230
+ 3 AuthorsPaul M. Ridker188
Estimated H-index: 188
Background: Recent prospective data suggest that intake of rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a high dietary glycemic load is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective: We examined whether a high dietary glycemic load was associated with elevated hs-CRP concentrations and whether this association was modified by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ). Design: In 244 apparently healthy women, we measured plasma hs-CRP concentrations and determined average die...
455 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2000in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.55
Simin Liu100
Estimated H-index: 100
,
Barry M. Popkin317
Estimated H-index: 317
+ 5 AuthorsJoAnn E. Manson230
Estimated H-index: 230
Background: Little is known about the effects of the amount and type of carbohydrates on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective: The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relations of the amount and type of carbohydrates with risk of CHD. Design: A cohort of 75 521 women aged 38-63 y with no previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, or other cardiovascular diseases in 1984 was followed for 10 y. Each participant's dietary glycemi...
910 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2009in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2.95
Emily B. Levitan36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
Murray A. Mlttleman86
Estimated H-index: 86
,
Alicja Wolk109
Estimated H-index: 109
Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load and mortality among men with established cardiovascular disease
15 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 9, 2006in The New England Journal of Medicine 79.26
Thomas L. Halton4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Barry M. Popkin317
Estimated H-index: 317
+ 4 AuthorsFrank B. Hu199
Estimated H-index: 199
(Harvard University)
Background Low-carbohydrate diets have been advocated for weight loss and to prevent obesity, but the long-term safety of these diets has not been determined. Methods We evaluated data on 82,802 women in the Nurses’ Health Study who had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were used to calculate a low-carbohydrate-diet score, which was based on the percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein (a higher score reflects a higher intake of fat and...
316 Citations Source Cite
  • References (47)
  • Citations (73)
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Cited By73
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 3.04
Makoto Kinoshita1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Toray Industries),
Koutaro Yokote34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Chiba University)
+ 29 AuthorsTomonori Okamura48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Keio University)
36 Citations Source Cite
Cecilia Lindström4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Lund University),
Anne Voinot1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsElin Östman27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Lund University)
AbstractAn acute meal study was performed to determine postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of two fermented oat bran-based beverages (with and without exopolysaccharides) and yoghurt. This randomized, single-blind, within-subject study included 18 healthy, overweight participants. Four breakfast meals, including a reference meal, were tested; all meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrates, but differed in energy and macronutrient composition. All experimental meals ...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2015in Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 3.32
Livia Silvia Augustin8
Estimated H-index: 8
(St. Michael's Hospital),
Cyril W.C. Kendall60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Saskatchewan)
+ 18 AuthorsAnnette E Buyken5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Bonn)
Abstract Background and aims The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers. Methods International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utility of the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response (GR). Results The outcome was a scientific consensus statement which recognized the importance of postprandial glycemia in ov...
92 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2015in Stroke 6.24
Sindhu Lakkur5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Alabama at Birmingham),
Suzanne E. Judd40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Alabama at Birmingham)
Every year there are ≈795 000 incident strokes, a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States.1 The cost of stroke in 2010 was $36.5 billion and is projected to increase, with lost wages being the most substantial cost.1 Identifying targets for primordial prevention of stroke is critical to public health as the population in the United States is aging. Diet is often suggested as a stroke prevention option because diet quality has effects on weight maintenance and blood pressure co...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 3.32
Recio-Rodríguez Ji5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 8 AuthorsCristina Agudo-Conde17
Estimated H-index: 17
Abstract Background and aims Diets with a high glycemic index (GI), high glycemic load (GL), or both, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examined the association of GI and GL in a regular diet with the peripheral augmentation index (i.e., a marker of vascular aging) in a sample of adults. Methods and Results Cross-sectional study. The findings presented in this manuscript are a subanalysis of the EVIDENT study whose purpose was to analyze the relationship between lifestyle a...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 2, 2015in Journal of The American College of Nutrition 2.17
Mohammad Saadatnia14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Isfahan University of Medical Sciences),
Forough Shakeri3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)
+ 2 AuthorsAhmad Esmaillzadeh45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)
Background: Although several studies have linked dietary patterns to the risk of stroke in Western countries, we are aware of no report in Middle Eastern populations with regard to this association.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between major dietary patterns and risk of stroke among a group of Iranian population.Methods: In a hospital-based case-control study, 195 stroke patients, hospitalized in Alzahra University Hospital in 2008, were selected as cases and 19...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2015in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 5.15
Federica Turati26
Estimated H-index: 26
,
Carlotta Galeone28
Estimated H-index: 28
+ 4 AuthorsCarlo La Vecchia122
Estimated H-index: 122
(University of Milan)
Scope To obtain an up-to-date quantification of the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and the risk of cancer. Methods and results We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies updated to January 2015. Summary relative risks (RRs) were derived using random effects models. Seventy-five reports were evaluated in the systematic review (147 090 cases), and 72 were included in the meta-analyses by cancer site. Considering hormone-relat...
31 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2015in Nutrition 3.73
James M. Shikany45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Alabama at Birmingham),
Suzanne E. Judd40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Alabama at Birmingham)
+ 2 AuthorsP. K. Newby4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Harvard University)
Abstract Objective High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been associated with an increased risk for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and selected cancers. The aim of this study was to identify the main food and food group contributors to dietary GL in a representative sample of US adults to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of 30 239 commu...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2.56
Arash Mirrahimi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Toronto),
Laura Chiavaroli21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Toronto)
+ 4 AuthorsDavid J.A. Jenkins89
Estimated H-index: 89
(University of Toronto)
A number of meta-analyses of cohort studies have assessed the impact of glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular outcomes. The picture that emerges is that for women, a significant association appears to exist between the consumption of high GL/GI diets and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This association appears to be stronger in those with greater adiposity and possibly in those with diabetes, although these findings are not uniform. There is also an indication...
45 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2014in Atherosclerosis 4.47
George Michas5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Agricultural University of Athens),
Renata Micha35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Agricultural University of Athens),
Antonis Zampelas11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Agricultural University of Athens)
Abstract Dietary fatty acids play significant roles in the cause and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have well-established adverse effects and should be eliminated from the human diet. CVD risk can be modestly reduced by decreasing saturated fatty acids (SFA) and replacing it by a combination of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Although the ideal type of unsaturated fat for this rep...
92 Citations Source Cite