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Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya.

Published on Aug 1, 2011in Biomass & Bioenergy 3.54
· DOI :10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.05.002
Dorisel Torres-Rojas2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Cornell University),
Johannes Lehmann79
Estimated H-index: 79
(Cornell University)
+ 2 AuthorsHenry Neufeldt12
Estimated H-index: 12
Cite
Abstract
Pyrolytic cook stoves in smallholder farms may require different biomass supply than traditional bioenergy approaches. Therefore, we carried out an on-farm assessment of the energy consumption for food preparation, the biomass availability relevant to conventional and pyrolytic cook stoves, and the potential biochar generation in rural households of western Kenya. Biomass availability for pyrolysis varied widely from 0.7 to 12.4 Mg ha � 1 y � 1 with an average of 4.3 Mg ha � 1 y � 1 , across all 50 studied farms. Farms with high soil fertility that were recently converted to agriculture from forest had the highest variability (CV ¼ 83%), which was a result of the wide range of farm sizes and feedstock types in the farms. Biomass variability was two times lower for farms with low than high soil fertility (CV ¼ 37%). The reduction in variability is a direct consequence of the soil quality, coupled with farm size and feedstock type. The total wood energy available in the farms (5.3 GJ capita � 1 y � 1 ) was not sufficient to meet the current cooking energy needs using conven
  • References (46)
  • Citations (32)
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References46
Newest
Published on Apr 15, 2011in Environmental Science & Technology 7.15
Thea Whitman12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Charles F. Nicholson17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsJohannes Lehmann79
Estimated H-index: 79
Cook stoves that produce biochar as well as heat for cooking could help mitigate indoor air pollution from cooking fires and could enhance local soils, while their potential reductions in carbon (C) emissions and increases in soil C sequestration could offer access to C market financing. We use system dynamics modeling to (i) investigate the climate change impact of prototype and refined biochar-producing pyrolytic cook stoves and improved combustion cook stoves in comparison to conventional coo...
Published on Feb 15, 2010in Environmental Science & Technology 7.15
Andrew R. Zimmerman46
Estimated H-index: 46
Pyrogenic or “black” carbon is a soil and sediment component that may control pollutant migration. Biochar, black carbon made intentionally by biomass pyrolysis, is increasingly discussed as a possible soil amendment to increase fertility and sequester carbon. Though thought to be extremely refractory, it must degrade at some rate. Better understanding of the rates and factors controlling its remineralization in the environment is needed. Release of CO2 was measured over 1 year from microbial an...
Published on Feb 1, 2010in Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 10.56
Jing Yan Tock1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Universiti Sains Malaysia),
Chin Lin Lai1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Universiti Sains Malaysia)
+ 2 AuthorsSubhash Bhatia52
Estimated H-index: 52
(Universiti Sains Malaysia)
The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natu...
Published on Nov 1, 2009in Environmental Science & Policy 4.82
Thea Whitman12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Cornell University),
Johannes Lehmann79
Estimated H-index: 79
(Cornell University)
Abstract The Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has had relatively little success in Africa due to a number of factors. Increases in agricultural soil carbon have strong benefits for soil health as well as potential for carbon sequestration, but such projects are currently excluded from the CDM and other offset mechanisms. Small-scale biochar systems with net emission reductions may hold a key for Africa to engage with the international offset mechanisms and open the door to soil...
Published on Apr 1, 2009in Environmental Science & Technology 7.15
Michael Johnson12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Rufus Edwards27
Estimated H-index: 27
+ 4 AuthorsOmar Masera45
Estimated H-index: 45
In spite of growing interest, a principal obstacle to wider inclusion of improved cookstove projects in carbon trading schemes has been the lack of accountability in estimating CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) savings. To demonstrate that robust estimates of CO2-e savings can be obtained at reasonable cost, an integrated approach of community-based subsampling of traditional and improved stoves in homes to estimate fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, combined with spatially explicit community-...
Published on Apr 1, 2009in Ecology Letters 8.70
Jérôme Chave59
Estimated H-index: 59
(Paul Sabatier University),
David A. Coomes56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Cambridge)
+ 3 AuthorsAmy E. Zanne27
Estimated H-index: 27
(National Evolutionary Synthesis Center)
Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood fu...
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 3.95
Matieu Henry15
Estimated H-index: 15
,
Pablo Tittonell34
Estimated H-index: 34
(WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)
+ 3 AuthorsBernard Vanlauwe41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UN: United Nations)
Abstract While Carbon (C) sequestration on farmlands may contribute to mitigate CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere, greater agro-biodiversity may ensure longer term stability of C storage in fluctuating environments. This study was conducted in the highlands of western Kenya, a region with high potential for agroforestry, with the objectives of assessing current biodiversity and aboveground C stocks in perennial vegetation growing on farmland, and estimating C sequestration potential in above...
Published on Dec 1, 2008in Global Change Biology 8.88
Solomon Ngoze7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Cornell University),
Susan Riha5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Cornell University)
+ 4 AuthorsAlice N. Pell40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Cornell University)
Soil degradation is one of the most serious threats to sustainable crop production in many tropical agroecosystems where extensification rather than intensification of agriculture has occurred. In the highlands of western Kenya, we investigated soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constraints to maize productivity across a cultivation chronosequence in which land-use history ranged from recent conversion from primary forest to 100 years in continuous cropping. Nutrient treatments included a rang...
Published on Aug 1, 2008in Ecosystems 4.55
J.M. Kimetu8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Cornell University),
Johannes Lehmann79
Estimated H-index: 79
(Cornell University)
+ 6 AuthorsAlice N. Pell40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Cornell University)
In the highlands of Western Kenya, we investigated the reversibility of soil productivity decline with increasing length of continuous maize cultivation over 100 years (corresponding to decreasing soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient contents) using organic matter additions of differing quality and stability as a function of soil texture and inorganic nitrogen (N) additions. The ability of additions of labile organic matter (green and animal manure) to improve productivity primarily by enhance...
Published on Aug 1, 2008in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 1.68
S. Hauser17
Estimated H-index: 17
(IITA: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture)
Biomass production and nutrient uptake of all components in planted Senna spectabilis, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla hedgerow fallow were determined after three two‐year fallow phases and compared to natural fallow. Total above-ground biomass production after each of three fallow phases was significantly higher in the Senna system than any other system. Total above ground biomass production in the Flemingia and the Dactyladeniai system was not different from that in natural fall...
Cited By32
Newest
K.J. Gitau (UoN: University of Nairobi), J. Mutune (UoN: University of Nairobi)+ -3 AuthorsMary Njenga10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UoN: University of Nairobi)
Abstract Fuel wood is the main source of cooking and heating energy in developing countries. However, it is combusted in inefficient cookstoves, leading to more fuel use and human health problems resulting from exposure to smoke. Thus new, efficient cooking systems that can address some of these problems are required. This study examined gasifier cookstove use in Kwale County, Kenya, and factors influencing adoption. Gasifier stoves were issued for free to 50 households, which were surveyed afte...
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Biomass & Bioenergy 3.54
Dorisel Torres-Rojas2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Cornell University),
Lei Deng8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Xi'an Jiaotong University)
+ 3 AuthorsJohannes Lehmann79
Estimated H-index: 79
(Cornell University)
Abstract Cookstoves, where fuel is pyrolyzed or gasified, have received much attention due to their potential to reduce environmental and household air pollution (HAP). In this study, an indirect pyrolysis cookstove was investigated to determine how operating conditions influence carbon and nitrogen emission rates and heat input to the cooking water. Multiple linear regression models were developed based on time-resolved measurements. The rate of pyrolysis fuel consumption emerged as the primary...
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Energy Policy 4.88
Ricardo Luis Teles de Carvalho3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Aveiro),
Ricardo L. Carvalho + 4 AuthorsRocio Diaz-Chavez (SEI: Stockholm Environment Institute)
Abstract Traditional cooking is today's largest global environmental health risk. Over 640 million people in Africa are expected to rely on biomass for cooking by 2040. In Kenya, cooking inefficiently with wood and charcoal persists as a cause of deforestation and household air pollution. This research analyses the effects of four biomass cookstove strategies on reducing air pollutant emissions in Kisumu County between 2015 and 2035 using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning system. The B...
Published on May 13, 2019in American Journal of Agricultural Economics 2.53
Julia Berazneva4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Middlebury College),
Jon M. Conrad20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Cornell University)
+ 2 AuthorsDominic Woolf6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Cornell University)
Published on Mar 22, 2019in Applied Sciences
James K. Gitau , Jane Mutune + 2 AuthorsMary Njenga10
Estimated H-index: 10
A majority of people in developing countries use biomass energy for cooking and heating due to its affordability, accessibility and convenience. However, unsustainable biomass use leads to forest d ...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Environment and Development Economics 1.22
David M. A. Murphy (Cornell University), Julia Berazneva4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 0 AuthorsDavid R. Lee12
Estimated H-index: 12
Deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a substantial problem. Increasing scarcity of fuelwood can be significant burden to households, as fuelwood is a key component of the energy profile of a rural Sub-Saharan household. However, households do not only collect their fuelwood from off-farm, but also produce it on-farm and purchase it from the market. This paper studies substitution between fuelwood sources for rural Kenyan households. Conducting analysis using shadow prices for household fu...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Ecological Economics 4.28
Julia Berazneva4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Middlebury College),
David R. Lee12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsGeorge H. Jakubson10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Cornell University)
Crop residues, one of smallholder farmers' most common but overlooked resources, serve multiple purposes in many rural households: they are a source of fuel, animal feed, and soil amendments. They are key to maintaining soil fertility, depletion of which is widely considered to be one of the major causes of low food production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using household survey data from western Kenya, we investigate the contribution of maize residues to smallholders' agricultural production and estim...
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Science of The Total Environment 5.59
Gerard Cornelissen47
Estimated H-index: 47
(NMBU: Norwegian University of Life Sciences),
Jubaedah2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 4 AuthorsJan Mulder29
Estimated H-index: 29
Abstract Low fertility limits crop production on acidic soils dominating much of the humid tropics. Biochar may be used as a soil enhancer, but little consensus exists on its effect on crop yield. Here we use a controlled, replicated and long-term field study in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the longevity and mechanism of the effects of two contrasting biochars (produced from rice husk and cacao shell, and applied at dosages of 5 and 15 t ha −1 ) on maize production in a highly acidic Ultis...
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Atmospheric Environment 4.01
Wei Du10
Estimated H-index: 10
(PKU: Peking University),
Guofeng Shen31
Estimated H-index: 31
(PKU: Peking University)
+ 9 AuthorsEddy Y. Zeng12
Estimated H-index: 12
(JNU: Jinan University)
Abstract Air pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and household air pollution were investigated in rural Hubei, central China, as a revisited evaluation of an intervention program to replace coal use by wood in gasifier stoves. Measured emission factors were comparable to the results measured two years ago when the program was initiated. Coal combustion produced significantly higher emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , and SO 2 compared with wood combustion; however, wood combustion in gasifier stoves h...
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Journal of Environmental Management 4.87
Willis Gwenzi15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UZ: University of Zimbabwe),
Nhamo Chaukura10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UNISA: University of South Africa)
+ 1 AuthorsFungai N.D. Mukome3
Estimated H-index: 3
(William Jessup University)
Abstract Approximately 600 million people lack access to safe drinking water, hence achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) calls for rapid translation of recent research into practical and frugal solutions within the remaining 13 years. Biochars, with excellent capacity to remove several contaminants from aqueous solutions, constitute an untapped technology for drinking water treatment. Biochar water treat...