Self-Evaluation in Young Children

Published on Apr 1, 1992
Deborah J. Stipek49
Estimated H-index: 49
Susan L. Recchia10
Estimated H-index: 10
Susan McClintic1
Estimated H-index: 1
  • References (20)
  • Citations (280)
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3-year-old children were presented with easy and difficult tasks and their emotional responses of shame and pride were observed. No shame was shown when subjects succeeded on the tasks and no pride was shown when they failed. Significantly more shame was shown when subjects failed easy tasks than when they failed difficult tasks, and significantly more pride was shown when subjects succeeded on difficult than on easy tasks. While there were no sex differences in task failures, girls showed more ...
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Shame, the quintessential human emotion, received little attention during the years in which the central forces believed to be motivating us were identified as primitive instincts like sex and aggression. Now, redressing the balance, there is an explosion of interest in the self-conscious emotion. Much of our psychic lives involve the negotiation of shame, asserts Michael Lewis, internationally known developmental and clinical psychologist. Shame is normal, not pathological, though opposite reac...
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In each of 2 studies, the mirror-rouge technique was used to differentiate children into those who showed self-recognition and those who did not. In Study 1, 27 children (aged 9-24 months) were observed in 2 experimental situations thought to differentially elicit fear and embarrassment behaviors. In Study 2, 44 children (aged 22 months) were seen in the situations of Study 1 and 3 additional contexts thought to elicit embarrassment behavior. The results of both studies indicate that embarrassme...
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The self-conscious emotions according to the theory presented here require two important features which develop in the first 3 years of life. These are consciousness, defined here as self-awareness as measured by self-recognition in mirrors, the onset of personal pronouns like “me” or “mine,” and complex pretend play. These emerge between 15 and 24 months of age and give rise to self-conscious-exposed emotions such as embarrassment, envy, and empathy, as well as prosocial behaviors such as shari...
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