Fighting on: emotion and conflict termination

Published on Jul 3, 2015in Cambridge Review of International Affairs0.66
· DOI :10.1080/09557571.2014.888539
Kenneth Payne4
Estimated H-index: 4
('KCL': King's College London)
Why do states persist in enduring, expensive conflicts when the costs seem so high, the potential benefits, at best, somewhat ambiguous? This article suggests that emotional psychology can provide some insights into this problem. Decision-makers construct a vision of the future that is greatly informed by affect. How they feel in the present has a big impact on their conception of events and their decisions about them. The risks they are prepared to take, the desires they anticipate having in future, the lessons of the past they draw on—all are constructed under the influence of current emotions, and all may encourage the persistence of conflict beyond a point at which more dispassionate minds might desist. This theoretical argument is then illustrated with a discussion of US policy-making in the Vietnam War.
  • References (42)
  • Citations (4)
Published on Dec 5, 2008
David Patrick Houghton8
Estimated H-index: 8
Introduction. 1. Two Conceptual Schemes or Distinctions. 2. A Brief History of the Discipline. PART I: The Situation. 3. Behaviorism and Human Freedom. 4. The Psychology of Obedience. 5. Creating a "Bad Barrel". 6. Group Decision-Making. PART II: The Individual. 7. Psychobiography. 8. Personality and Beliefs. 9. Cognition. 10. Affect and Emotion. 11. Neuropolitics, Biopolitics and Genopolitics. PART III: Bringing the Two Together. 12. The Psychology of Voting Behavior. 13. The Psychology of Poli...
Published on Sep 1, 2008in Political Behavior2.53
James N. Druckman43
Estimated H-index: 43
(NU: Northwestern University),
Estimated H-index: 38
(UC: University of California)
One of the most noted phenomena in social and political decision-making is the occurrence of a framing effect. For example, on problems involving risky choices, individuals tend to act risk-averse when the problem is framed in terms of gains (e.g., saving lives, making money) and risk-seeking when the same problem is instead framed in terms of losses (e.g., deaths, losing money). Scholars have begun to identify the processes underlying framing effects as well as the conditions under which framin...
Published on Jan 1, 2006
Eric R. Kandel159
Estimated H-index: 159
Memory binds our mental life together. We are who we are in large part because of what we learn and remember. But how does the brain create memories? Nobel Prize winner Eric R. Kandel intertwines the intellectual history of the powerful new science of the mind-a combination of cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and molecular biology-with his own personal quest to understand memory. A deft mixture of memoir and history, modern biology and behavior, In Search of Memory brings readers from Kandel'...
Published on Aug 1, 2005in Psychological Science4.90
Carey K. Morewedge22
Estimated H-index: 22
Daniel T. Gilbert53
Estimated H-index: 53
Timothy D. Wilson56
Estimated H-index: 56
Atypical events are both memorable and unrepresentative of their class. We tested the hypotheses that (a) people tend to recall atypical instances of events, and (b) when they are unaware of this, they rely on these atypical instances in forecasting their affective reactions to future events. In three studies, participants who were asked to recall an instance of an event and participants who were asked to recall an atypical instance of an event recalled equally atypical instances. However, only ...
Published on Jan 1, 2005in International Organization4.51
Jonathan Mercer7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UW: University of Washington)
The ubiquitous yet inaccurate belief in international relations scholarship that cognitive biases and emotion cause only mistakes distorts the field's understanding of the relationship between rationality and psychology in three ways. If psychology explains only mistakes (or deviations from rationality), then (1) rationality must be free of psychology; (2) psychological explanations require rational baselines; and (3) psychology cannot explain accurate judgments. This view of the relationship be...
Published on Oct 1, 2004in Social Cognition1.25
Linda J. Levine28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UCI: University of California, Irvine),
David A. Pizarro31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
A great deal of research on emotion and memory has focused on the question of whether emotion enhances memory. Based on this research, investigators have variously claimed that emotional memories are indelible; that emotion has no special effects on memory at all; and that emotion leads to enhanced memory for either congruent or central information. In this overview, we review the current status of these claims. Although considerable progress has been made toward understanding whether and how em...
Published on Sep 7, 2004
Stephen Peter Rosen1
Estimated H-index: 1
Acknowledgments vii Chapter One: Introduction 1 Chapter Two: Emotions, Memory, and Decision Making 27 Chapter Three: Status, Testosterone, and Dominance 71 Chapter Four: Stress, Distress, and War Termination 99 Chapter Five: Of Time, Testosterone, and Tyrants 135 Chapter Six: Where Do We Go from Here? 179 Notes 185 Index 205
Published on Apr 1, 2004in Risk Analysis2.56
Paul Slovic106
Estimated H-index: 106
(UO: University of Oregon),
Melissa L. Finucane23
Estimated H-index: 23
(KP: Kaiser Permanente)
+ 1 AuthorsDonald G. MacGregor24
Estimated H-index: 24
Modern theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience indicate that there are two fundamental ways in which human beings comprehend risk. The “analytic system” uses algorithms and normative rules, such as probability calculus, formal logic, and risk assessment. It is relatively slow, effortful, and requires conscious control. The “experiential system” is intuitive, fast, mostly automatic, and not very accessible to conscious awareness. The experiential system enabled human beings to survive d...
Published on Apr 1, 2004in Political Psychology3.17
Estimated H-index: 38
(UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)
Prospect theory offers a number of advantages that justify its use in the analysis of political behavior but it also has some aspects that limit its wider applicability in political contexts. This article reviews recent research highlighting these successes and limitations. Future research on the incorporation of prospect theory into models of political behavior should focus on such areas as group decision-making, reference point specification, and emotion.
Published on Jul 30, 2001
David Patrick Houghton8
Estimated H-index: 8
Preface 1. Jimmy Carter and the tragedy of foreign policy 2. Locating the argument: a review of the existing literature 3. The origins of the crisis 4. The waiting game 5. Days of decision: the hostage rescue mission 6. Hostages to history 7. Some alternative explanations: non-analogical accounts of the Iran decision-making 8. Conclusions Appendix I. Dramatis personae Appendix II. The major historical analogies used Bibliography Index.
Cited By4
Published on Jan 2, 2019in Defence Studies
Thomas Waldman4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Macquarie University)
ABSTRACTThis paper explores the notion that US efforts to evade the political costs of war paradoxically contribute to the subsequent exacerbation of costs over time. Leaders seek to purchase political capital in the short term by limiting the costs and requirements of military operations, but in doing so cause strategic and political liabilities to mount in the long run. While identification of such behaviour is not new, insufficient attention has been devoted to explaining its causes, dynamics...
Published on Jul 18, 2017
Defence diplomacy enhances the diplomatic and security capacity of a state, providing the only link between executive office and the ministries of foreign affairs and defence, three vital institutions in the Long War. Using a case study of US defence diplomacy in Afghanistan from 2001-2014, the paper argues simply that the practice of defence diplomacy far outweighs current theories on what it is, how it works and why it matters?
Published on Nov 1, 2016in Politics1.38
Steven C. Roach7
Estimated H-index: 7
(USF: University of South Florida)
This article critically examines the interrelationship of values and emotions in international relations. It focuses on the different meaning of affects and emotions, and theorizes about the affective qualities of values in world politics. It defines affective values as values that arise from the ceaseless, unconscious striving(s) to contest the outside control over one’s life. In doing so, it distinguishes between negative affective values, which represent the evocation of fear, shame, and dist...
Published on Sep 18, 2016in Journal of Strategic Studies1.48
Kareem W. Ayoub2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Oxford),
Kenneth Payne4
Estimated H-index: 4
('KCL': King's College London)
ABSTRACTWe argue that Artificial Intelligence (AI) will, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the conduct of strategy and will be disruptive of existing power balances. To do so, we review the psychological foundations of strategy and explore the ways in which AI will impact human decision-making. We then review current and evolving capabilities in ‘narrow’, modular AI that is optimised to perform in a particular environment, and explore its military potential. Lastly, we look ahea...
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