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Estimating cognitive load using remote eye tracking in a driving simulator

Published on Mar 22, 2010
· DOI :10.1145/1743666.1743701
Oskar Palinko9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UNH: University of New Hampshire),
Andrew L. Kun15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UNH: University of New Hampshire)
+ 1 AuthorsPeter A. Heeman21
Estimated H-index: 21
(OHSU: Oregon Health & Science University)
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Abstract
We report on the results of a study in which pairs of subjects were involved in spoken dialogues and one of the subjects also operated a simulated vehicle. We estimated the driver's cognitive load based on pupil size measurements from a remote eye tracker. We compared the cognitive load estimates based on the physiological pupillometric data and driving performance data. The physiological and performance measures show high correspondence suggesting that remote eye tracking might provide reliable driver cognitive load estimation, especially in simulators. We also introduced a new pupillometric cognitive load measure that shows promise in tracking cognitive load changes on time scales of several seconds.
  • References (15)
  • Citations (125)
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References15
Newest
Published on Sep 21, 2009
Andrew L. Kun15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UNH: University of New Hampshire),
Tim Paek22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Microsoft)
+ 2 AuthorsOskar Palinko9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UNH: University of New Hampshire)
Nowadays, personal navigation devices (PNDs) that provide GPS-based directions are widespread in vehicles. These devices typically display the real-time location of the vehicle on a map and play spoken prompts when drivers need to turn. While such devices are less distracting than paper directions, their graphical display may distract users from their primary task of driving. In experiments conducted with a high fidelity driving simulator, we found that drivers using a navigation system with a g...
Published on Sep 21, 2009
Bryan Reimer30
Estimated H-index: 30
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Bruce Mehler21
Estimated H-index: 21
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
+ 2 AuthorsChuanzhong Tan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
In this paper, we describe changes in heart rate and skin conductance that result from an artificial manipulation of driver cognitive workload during an on-road driving study. Cognitive workload was increased systematically through three levels of an auditory delayed digit recall (n-back) task. Results show that changes in heart rate and skin conductance with increasing levels of workload are similar to those observed in an earlier simulation study. Heart rate increased in a step-wise fashion th...
Published on Nov 1, 2008in Spanish Journal of Psychology0.75
Miguel Ángel Recarte Goldaracena9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Complutense University of Madrid),
Elisa Pérez1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Complutense University of Madrid)
+ 1 AuthorsLuís Nunes10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Directorate General of Traffic)
Este experimento tiene dos objetivos: 1) Estudiar la validez concurrente de tres medidas de carga mental, la escala de juicios NASA TLX, la dilatacion de la pupila y la tasa de parpadeo, poniendo a prueba la hipotesis de que, en situaciones de tarea unica, arrojan resultados convergentes, pero, en doble tarea, arrojan resultados disociativos. 2) Analizar su capacidad para predecir el deterioro en la busqueda visual. Las tres medidas fueron analizadas con las mismas tareas cognitivas realizadas e...
Published on Mar 26, 2008
Jeff Klingner9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Stanford University),
Rakshit Kumar1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Stanford University),
Pat Hanrahan72
Estimated H-index: 72
(Stanford University)
The pupil-measuring capability of video eye trackers can detect the task-evoked pupillary response: subtle changes in pupil size which indicate cognitive load. We performed several experiments to measure cognitive load using a remote video eye tracker, which demonstrate two extensions to current research in this area. First, we show that cognitive pupillometry can be extended from head-mounted to remote eye tracking systems. Second, we demonstrate the feasibility of a more fine-grained approach ...
Published on Jan 1, 2008in ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction1.73
Brian P. Bailey35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Shamsi T. Iqbal23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
Notifications can have reduced interruption cost if delivered at moments of lower mental workload during task execution. Cognitive theorists have speculated that these moments occur at subtask boundaries. In this article, we empirically test this speculation by examining how workload changes during execution of goal-directed tasks, focusing on regions between adjacent chunks within the tasks, that is, the subtask boundaries. In a controlled experiment, users performed several interactive tasks w...
Published on Apr 2, 2005 in CHI (Human Factors in Computing Systems)
Shamsi T. Iqbal23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Piotr D. Adamczyk7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
+ 1 AuthorsBrian P. Bailey35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
To contribute to systems that reason about human attention, our work empirically demonstrates how a user's mental workload changes during task execution. We conducted a study where users performed interactive, hierarchical tasks while mental workload was measured through the use of pupil size. Results show that (i) different types of subtasks impose different mental workload, (ii) workload decreases at subtask boundaries, (iii) workload decreases more at boundaries higher in a task model and les...
Published on Apr 24, 2004 in CHI (Human Factors in Computing Systems)
Shamsi T. Iqbal23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Xianjun Sam Zheng2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Brian P. Bailey35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
Accurate assessment of a user's mental workload will be critical for developing systems that manage user attention (interruptions) in the user interface. Empirical evidence suggests that an interruption is much less disruptive when it occurs during a period of lower mental workload. To provide a measure of mental workload for interactive tasks, we investigated the use of task-evoked pupillary response. Results show that a more difficult task demands longer processing time, induces higher subject...
Published on Jan 1, 2002
Sandra P. Marshall13
Estimated H-index: 13
(SDSU: San Diego State University)
The Index of Cognitive Activity is an innovative technique that provides an objective psychophysiological measurement of cognitive workload. As users operate in increasingly complex environments, it is essential that the designers of these environments understand the cognitive demands placed on the users. The Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA) provides an important estimate of the levels of cognitive effort of the user. The ICA is based on changes in pupil dilation that occur as a user interacts ...
Cited By125
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Ahmed Syed (University of Southern Queensland), Subrata Chakraborty (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)+ 1 AuthorsAnuradha Mandal (University of Southern Queensland)
Published on Jan 30, 2019in Cognition & Emotion2.37
Ugo Ballenghein1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Olga Megalakaki5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Thierry Baccino19
Estimated H-index: 19
ABSTRACTThe present study examined the effects of emotions on eye movements, head motion, and iPad motion during reading. Thirty-one participants read neutral, emotionally negative texts and emotionally positive texts on a digital tablet and both participants’ eye movements and body movements were recorded using respectively eye-tracking glasses and a motion capture system. The results showed that emotionally positive texts were read faster than neutral texts, and that readers’ movements decreas...
Published on 2019in Human Factors2.65
Chuhao Wu , Jackie S. Cha1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Purdue University)
+ 4 AuthorsDenny Yu8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Purdue University)
A driving simulator was created using commercially available 3 degree of freedom motion platform (DOFreality H3) and a virtual reality head-mounted display (Oculus CV1). Using virtual reality headset as the visual simulation system with low-cost moving base platform allowed us to create a high-fidelity driving simulator with minimal cost and space. A custom motion cueing algorithm was used to minimize visuo-vestibular conflict, and simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ) was used to measure progr...
Published on Sep 5, 2019in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders2.79
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio2
Estimated H-index: 2
(GHS: Geisinger Health System),
Yirui Hu1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Vanessa Troiani17
Estimated H-index: 17
(GHS: Geisinger Health System)
We assessed the association between dynamic changes in pupil response in the context of visual perception and quantitative measures of the autism phenotype in healthy adults. Using Navon stimuli in a task-switching paradigm, participants were instructed to identify global or local information based on a cue. Multiple pupil response trajectories across conditions were identified. We combined trajectory patterns for global and local conditions and used data-driven methods to identify three distinc...
Published on Jan 1, 2019 in CAIP (Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns)
Wolfgang Fuhl7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Wolfgang Rosenstiel36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
Enkelejda Kasneci14
Estimated H-index: 14
Anirban Dasgupta8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Som Madhab Bhattacharya , Aurobinda Routray21
Estimated H-index: 21
This paper proposes a system which uses a three-stage serio-parallel video-oculographic framework for computing the saccadic eye parameters to indicate the amount of cognitive loading. The three stages are viz. face and eye detection, iris and eye corner localization, and finally saccadic parameter computation. Since saccades are fast movements of the eyeballs, accurate estimation of these parameters requires high frame rates of acquisition and processing. Our proposed framework meets such deadl...
Published on Apr 29, 2019in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders2.79
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Yirui Hu1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Vanessa Troiani17
Estimated H-index: 17
We applied a trajectory-based analysis to eye tracking data in order to quantify individualized patterns of pupil response in the context of global–local processing that may be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features. Multiple pupil response trajectories across both global and local conditions were identified. Using the combined trajectory patterns for global and local conditions for each individual, we were able to identify three groups based on trajectory group membership that ...