Qualitative convergence of three nursing concepts: art of nursing, presence and caring
Title. Qualitative convergence of three nursing concepts: art of nursing, presence and caring. Aim. This paper is a report of the development of a theoretical framework of nursing practice based on the convergence of the concepts art of nursing, presence and caring. Background. Convergence of similar concepts to form broad yet useful theories is a relatively unexplored area, despite the fact that systematically examining and integrating nursing concepts can help to build theory and leads to enhanced understanding of the discipline. Research results suggest that unarticulated similarities exist among the art of nursing, presence and caring; thus, qualitative convergence of these concepts is justified. Data sources. Findings from qualitative studies of the art of nursing (published between 1993 and the third quarter of 2006) and meta-syntheses of presence and caring (published in 2006 and 2007 respectively) were inductively analysed and integrated. Results. A theoretical framework of nursing practice was developed to illustrate the areas of convergence among the concepts art of nursing, presence and caring. Nursing involves an intimate relationship-centred partnership between the nurse and patient. Situation-specific nursing actions result from multiple forms of personal and professional knowledge and are based on a value system of holistic beneficence and patient empowerment. Nursing actions are promoted by a conducive work environment and result in enhanced well-being among patients and nurses. Conclusion. Results of this concept convergence provide an enhanced understanding of nursing practice and offer insight into areas of nursing practice that are not encompassed within the concepts art of nursing, presence and caring. Further work is recommended to expand the proposed framework, especially in terms of the wide variety of nurse–patient relationships that exist.