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Oxidative damage to mitochondria in normal and cancer tissues, and its modulation

Published on Nov 30, 2000in Toxicology3.547
· DOI :10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00279-1
J.P. Kamat15
Estimated H-index: 15
(BARC: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre),
Thomas P.A. Devasagayam39
Estimated H-index: 39
(BARC: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre)
Abstract
Cellular damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal tissues has been implicated in the etiology of several human ailments. Among the subcellular organelles, damage to mitochondria is considered crucial and can lead to cytotoxicity and cell death. However, the same damage, if it is selectively induced in cancer tissues can lead to its cure. Hence analyzing the mechanisms of such damage and its modulation may result in better prevention or cure. Using mitochondria derived from rat brain/liver as well as sarcoma 180 ascites cells, we have examined the mechanisms of damage to lipid, as assessed by different products of lipid peroxidation and to proteins, as determined by loss of enzyme activity and protein oxidation. Mechanisms involved, in terms of scavenging of ROS have been determined using pulse radiolysis for hydroxyl radical and histidine destruction assay for singlet oxygen. Various ROS were generated using γ-radiation, photosensitization etc. under different conditions. Some novel porphyrins, with potential uses in photodynamic therapy also were used as photosensitizers. Our study shows that ROS can induce significant oxidative damage in mitochondria from both normal and tumor tissues and this can be inhibited by natural antioxidants like tocotrienols, nicotinamide and caffeine. Damage, on the other hand, can be enhanced by deuteration of the buffer and oxygenation. Our results hence demonstrated that mitochondria were sensitive to damage by ROS and its modulation may have potential uses in prevention of the disease in normal tissues; if damage can be selectively induced in tumor, it can lead to its regression.
  • References (28)
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References28
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Abstract We have investigated the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rat brain homogenates in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) which was released by the addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and compared it with that induced by H 2 O 2 . We also examined the effect of melatonin and vitamin E on the NO-induced LPO. The concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA) plus 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) was used as an index of LPO. While both H 2 O 2 and SNP increased MDA+4-HDA production in brain homogenates ...
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With a view to locate porphyrins for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT), the new modality of cancer treatment we have evaluated the ability of a novel water soluble porphyrin meso-tetrakis[4-(carboxymethyleneoxy)phenyl]porphyrin (T4CPP) to induce damage to mitochondria during photosensitization. T4CPP, when exposed to visible light, induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria as assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and lipid...
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