Gold deposits and gold metallogeny of Far East Russia

Published on Jun 1, 2014in Ore Geology Reviews3.387
· DOI :10.1016/j.oregeorev.2013.11.010
Nikolay A. Goryachev6
Estimated H-index: 6
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences),
Franco Pirajno51
Estimated H-index: 51
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
Abstract The Russian Far East or Far East Russia (FER) is host to a huge gold endowment and has produced more than 6500 t of gold, since the 1860s. Much of this gold has come from several mining districts: Aldan, Upper Amur, Lower Amur, Okhotsk, Allakh-Yun, Yana-Kolyma, Priokhotie, Omolon, and Chukotka. These districts include several gold deposits, mostly of orogenic and epithermal nature, as well as large and very large alluvial placer deposits. The main gold districts are of Late Mesozoic age, but there are also three districts (Aldan, Omolon, and southern Primorie) with pre-Mesozoic gold ores and three districts (Kamchatka, Sakhalin–South Kurile, and Lower Amur) with gold ores of Cenozoic age. This review paper attempts to marshal on the regional scale all available data aiming to provide a framework for generating and testing new ideas on the gold deposits of FER. The focus is on: (1) gold metallogeny, (2) details of key gold deposits, and (3) relationship between gold ore forming processes, metamorphic processes and granitoid intrusions in different geodynamic settings. The largest gold metallogenic belts in FER were formed in the late Mesozoic, namely: in the Late Jurassic (Yana-Kolyma), Early Cretaceous (eastern flank of Mongol–Okhotsk, Aldan, Oloy–Chukotka, Okhotsk–Koryak) and Late Cretaceous (Sikhote-Alin). The Mesozoic era was also the time when most of the gold-hosting orogens were formed. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic orogens resulted from the interaction between the Pacific oceanic plates with the Siberian craton and the North China craton. These orogens are products of diverse geodynamic settings and can be divided into four types: (1) collisional (e.g., Yana-Kolyma), (2) accretionary or uncompleted collisional (e.g., Okhotsk–Koryak or Kamchatka), (3) combined collisional and transform margin (Mongol–Okhotsk), and (4) active transform margin (Sikhote-Alin). The first two types are typical of North East Russia, whereas the third and fourth types are in the southern part of FER. The Late Cretaceous Okhotsk–Chukotka and East Sikhote-Alin gold provinces are associated with continental margin magmatic arcs and are post-accretionary (post-orogenic). Comparison of lode gold deposits from different geodynamic settings reveals specific features in metallogeny of the late Mesozoic orogens at the southern and eastern margins of the Siberian craton (Yana-Kolyma collisional orogen, Okhotsk–Koryak accretionary orogen and Mongol–Okhotsk transform margin orogen). These orogens possess different metal associations. The Yana-Kolyma belt contains Au, Sn, W, and Cu–Pb–Zn lode deposits. The Late Jurassic Transbaikalian sector of the Mongol–Okhotsk orogen contains Au, Mo, Pb–Zn, Sn, Ta–Nb, W, Hg–Sb lode deposits, whereas Early Cretaceous Au, Cu–Mo, Hg–Sb lode deposits are present in the Amur sector. Finally, the Okhotsk–Koryak orogen hosts Au, Cu–Mo, Cu–W–Bi, Ag–Co–Bi–As, and Be–Sn–Li–W deposits of Early Cretaceous age. Epithermal gold deposits occur in two different geodynamic settings: (1) island arcs (Kamchatka, Kurile islands) and magmatic belts at active continental margins (Omolon, Okhotsk–Chukotka and Eastern Sikhote-Alin), and (2) rift-related magmatism, linked with orogenic events and strike-slip kinematics, such as transform-like continental margin settings (Aldan and Upper Amur in the Mongol–Okhotsk orogen). Mineralogic–geochemical and isotope systematics indicate a metamorphic–magmatic origin of hydrothermal–plutonic systems in collisional settings (Yana-Kolyma, Okhotsk–Koryak, and Oloy–Chukotka orogens) and active continental margin (Okhotsk–Chukotka and East Sikhote-Alin) settings, with source contributions from the lower crust and mantle. The Mongol–Okhotsk and Sikhote-Alin orogens are of transform fault-related origin and suggest a source of the ore-forming fluids mostly from the mantle.
  • References (46)
  • Citations (28)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
260 Citations
1,027 Citations
704 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Richard J. Goldfarb (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 42
#2Ryan D. Taylor (USGS: United States Geological Survey)H-Index: 10
Last. Omero F. Orlandini (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
260 CitationsSource
#1Jing Zhang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 16
#2Yan-Jing Chen (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 40
Last. Changming Wang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 23
view all 6 authors...
The Yindongpo gold deposit is located in the Weishancheng Au-Ag-dominated polymetallic ore belt in Tongbai Mountains, central China. The ore bodies are stratabound within carbonaceous quartz-sericite schists of the Neoproterozoic Waitoushan Group. The ore-forming process can be divided into three stages, represented by early barren quartz veins, middle polymetallic sulfide veinlets and late quartz-carbonate stockworks, with most ore minerals, such as pyrite, galena, native gold and electrum bein...
35 CitationsSource
Throughout history, gold has been prized around the world and eagerly sought. But where does it come from, and where does it all go? By Neil Savage.
2 CitationsSource
#1N. A. Goryachev (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 6
#2O. T. Sotskaya (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. A. P. Man’shin (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
The results of investigation of heavy fraction minerals from the Degdekan deposit hosted by the lower portion of stratified Mid Permian sediments are presented; the investigation was conducted via electron microscopy using a QEMSCAN hardware and software instrument equipped with a QUANTAX quantitative analysis system. The following mineral phases of platinoids have been detected for the first time: native osmium, rutheniridosmine, osmiridium, ruthenosmiridium, laurite, iridarsenite, and Ru, Os, ...
5 CitationsSource
#1A. A. Sorokin (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 18
#2N. S. Ostapenko (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. A. V. Travin (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
The 40Ar/39Ar age of the productive stage of the ore-forming hydrothermal process at the large Tokur gold deposit is 122.4 ± 2.0 Ma. This estimate suggests a paragenetic relationship of this deposit with the nearly exposed Karaurak subvolcanic trachyrhyodacite intrusion, the U—Pb zircon age of which was previously estimated at 120 ± 5 Ma. The age of mineralization at the Tokur deposit is close to the time of formation of some other deposits in the Russian Far East localized in various structural...
7 CitationsSource
#1V. V. Akinin (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 11
#2Elizabeth L. Miller (Stanford University)H-Index: 59
Petrological, geochemical, and isotope geochronological aspects of the evolution of calc-alkaline magmatism were investigated in the Western Okhotsk flank zone, the Okhotsk segment, and the Eastern Chukchi flank zone of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (OCVB). The OCVB is a tectonotype of continental margin volcanic belts comprising much greater volumes of felsic ignimbritic volcanics compared with mature island arcs (MIA, Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian) and the Andean continental margin. The vo...
61 CitationsSource
#1N. E. Savva (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 6
#2V. G. Shakhtyrov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
New data on the Paleozoic Ol’cha gold-silver deposit are given, including interpretation of its tectonic setting and mineralogical characteristization, the most complete to date. Strike-slip deformation is crucial for the formation of the ore field structure.
7 CitationsSource
#1A. V. Volkov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 9
#2N. E. Savva (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 6
Last. A. D. Chernova (MSU: Moscow State University)H-Index: 2
view all 8 authors...
The Shkol’noe deposit is localized in a small granitoid stock, the root portion of which is traced using geophysical data to a depth of 5–8 km. The high-grade gold ore (33 gpt Au) is enriched in silver and principally differs in ore composition from the previously studied mesothermal gold-quartz and epithermal gold-silver deposits in the Russian Northeast. The main reserves of the Shkol’noe deposit concentrate in bonanzas (20% of the total volume of orebodies). The internal deformation is relate...
12 CitationsSource
#1Sergey Sokolov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 12
The tectonic units of the Verkhoyansk-Chukotka Mesozoides and the Koryak-Kamchatka Fold Region substantially differ from each other in the structure and composition of terranes. The geodynamic settings of terrane formation are defined and the main stages of their tectonic history are reconstructed. The formation of Mesozoides was mainly controlled by collision, largely between the continent and the Kolyma-Omolon and Chukchi microcontinents. The accretionary structure of the Koryak Highland compr...
35 CitationsSource
#1A. V. Chugaev (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 15
#2I. V. Chernyshov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
Last. A. N. Baranova (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
10 CitationsSource
Cited By28
#1Serguei G. Soloviev (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 8
#2Sergey G. KryazhevH-Index: 7
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The Agylki deposit is a large (>100 Kt WO3, possibly underexplored) and high-grade (average 1.46% WO3, 2.79% Cu, 0.5 g/t Au, and 0.03-0.04% Bi) reduced W skarn deposit situated in the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt, the latter formed after a passive continental margin, part of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma gold-dominant metallogenic province. The belt comprises intrusion-related Au mineralization and roughly parallels the other main metallogenic belts of the region hosting numerous gold (Au,...
The distribution of the main gold deposits in the history of the Earth is considered. Primary heterogeneity of the Archean crust by gold bearing is shown. The main gold ore metallogenic epochs are characterized. Links of gold deposits with VMS and Cu-Ni in the early periods of the Earth (Archaean-Proterozoic) and, in addition, with deposits of W, Mo, Cu, Sb, Hg and Sn in the Phanerozoic are shown. An analysis of the distribution of mineralogical and geochemical types of the actual Au mineralizat...
#1Vladimir L. TausonH-Index: 11
#2S. V. LipkoH-Index: 7
Last. Irina VoronovaH-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
The study focused on the forms of occurrence and distribution of hidden (“invisible”) noble metals (NMs = Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Ru) in the coexisting pyrites and arsenopyrites of four samples of mineral associations from three Au deposits in the north-east of Russia. The unique nature of our approach was the combination of methods of local analysis and statistics of the compositions of individual single crystals of different sizes. This allowed us to take into account the contribution of the surface c...
2 CitationsSource
#1Mao-Wen Yuan (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 3
#2Lin Li (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 3
Last. Xi-Bo BaoH-Index: 1
view all 7 authors...
Abstract The recently discovered Erdaokan Ag-Pb-Zn deposit is located in the Duobaoshan gold-copper metallogenic belt in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The ore-bodies occur mainly as veins hosted in the breccia. Three stages of mineralization, including early magnetite-quartz-pyrite, middle silver-sulfide-bitumen-quartz and late carbonate stages, were recognized. Here we report results from electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), S-Pb-H-O isotopes and fluid inclusions studies ...
3 CitationsSource
#1I.R. Prokopyev (NSU: Novosibirsk State University)H-Index: 3
#2A. G. DoroshkevichH-Index: 10
Last. A.V. MinakovH-Index: 1
view all 12 authors...
Abstract Late Mesozoic Upper Amga alkaline rocks are located in the Amga tectonic melange zone within the Aldan-Stanovoy shield, Russia. The main phases of the Upper Amga complex consist of alkaline syenite intrusions as well as the lamprophyre dikes and sills. The mineralogical features indicate that the lamprophyre may belong to minette. Recent geological works revealed the linear and area-specific geochemical gold anomalies in association with late Mesozoic alkaline magmatism in the Upper Amg...
#1Albert I. ZaitsevH-Index: 1
Last. Maxim V. KudrinH-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
This paper describes features of petrographic and chemical compositions and isotopic dating of the Ergelyakh and Sokh plutons, located within the Kular-Nera slate belt, Verkhoyansk-Kolyma folded region (VKFR), Northeast Russia. Intrusion of the massifs took place approximately 145–150 million years ago. Different isotopic systems on the whole rock samples and mineral separates record at least two stages of later tectono-magmatic activity 130–120 and 110–100 million years ago. Granitoid magmas fo...
1 CitationsSource
#1Ricardo Tichauer (USP: University of São Paulo)
#2Giorgio de Tomi (USP: University of São Paulo)H-Index: 7
Mineral exploration is a critical step for success in mining. However, small-scale mining often ignores exploration best practices. This paper introduces the Tichauer-DeTomi Matrix, a tool for assessment of geological uncertainty in small-scale mining. This matrix, which measures the level of compliance of exploration programs in small deposits with industry best practices, has been applied to three small mining projects in Brazil: an artisanal gold mine in the Amazon, a small-scale manganese mi...
Last. V. I. GvozdevH-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
Abstract In this paper, we summarize characteristics of calcic skarn ore deposits in Northeast Asia. The study area includes a wide variety of terranes, which experienced both subduction and collisional granite magmatism, and contains a skarn deposits of various types, mostly of sub-economic. This provides an opportunity to examine the relationships among skarn metal types, host rocks, and plutons, within various tectonic settings. The paper is based on the authors’ observations (at 17 deposits ...
2 CitationsSource
#1O. V. Vikent’eva (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 5
#2Vsevolod Yu. Prokofiev (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 7
Last. N. S. Bortnikov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 9
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Intrusion-related Au-Bi deposits of North-East Russia are related to Late Mesozoic orogenic S- and I-type granites of ilmenite series. The studied deposits differ in their position relatively to the plutons, alteration, ore body morphology and sulphide content in ores. Based on mineral composition of ores, studied deposits are divided into bismuth-sulphotelluride-quartz, bismuth-arsenide-sulpharsenide and bismuth-siderite-polysulphide types. Bismuth-sulphotelluride-quartz deposits (Levo...
1 CitationsSource
#1Andrey V. Prokopiev (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
#2Alexander S. Borisenko (NSU: Novosibirsk State University)H-Index: 16
Last. A. V. Ponomarchuk (NSU: Novosibirsk State University)H-Index: 4
view all 13 authors...
Abstract The paper presents new isotope geochronological data for several mineral deposits, ore occurrences, and related igneous bodies (plutons and dikes) in the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma folded area, eastern Yakutia. Twenty-one 40Ar/39Ar mica and four U-Pb zircon dates provide the first age constraints on key metallogenic units in the area. The dating results allow correlation between tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic events. The sampled mineral deposits within the Adycha-Taryn fault zone in the s...
2 CitationsSource