Match!

The role of evaporites in the formation of magnetite–apatite deposits along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River, China: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions

Published on Jun 1, 2015in Ore Geology Reviews3.39
· DOI :10.1016/j.oregeorev.2014.12.003
Wanting Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Bayreuth),
Andreas Audétat28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Bayreuth),
Jun Zhang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(China University of Geosciences)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract Numerous magnetite–apatite deposits occur in the Ningwu and Luzong sedimentary basins along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River, China. These deposits are located in the contact zone of (gabbro)-dioritic porphyries with surrounding volcanic or sedimentary rocks and are characterized by massive, vein and disseminated magnetite–apatite ± anhydrite mineralization associated with voluminous sodic–calcic alteration. Petrologic and microthermometric studies on multiphase inclusions in pre- to syn-mineralization pyroxene and garnet from the deposits at Meishan (Ningwu basin), Luohe and Nihe (both in Luzong basin) demonstrate that they represent extremely saline brines (~ 90 wt.% NaCl equiv ) that were trapped at temperatures of about 780 °C. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses and Raman spectroscopic studies on the natural fluid inclusions and synthetic fluid inclusions manufactured at similar P–T conditions reveal that the brines are composed mainly of Na (13–24 wt.%), K (7–11 wt.%), Ca (~ 7 wt.%), Fe (~ 2 wt.%), Cl (19–47 wt.%) and variable amounts of SO 4 (3–39 wt.%). Their Cl/Br, Na/K and Na/B ratios are markedly different from those of seawater evaporation brines and lie between those of magmatic fluids and sedimentary halite, suggesting a significant contribution from halite-bearing evaporites. High S/B and Ca/Na ratios in the fluid inclusions and heavy sulfur isotopic signatures of syn- to post-mineralization anhydrite (δ 34 S Anh  = + 15.2 to + 16.9‰) and pyrite (δ 34 S Py  = + 4.6‰ to + 12.1‰) further suggest a significant contribution from sedimentary anhydrite. These interpretations are in line with the presence of evaporite sequences in the lower parts of the sedimentary basins. The combined evidence thus suggests that the magnetite–apatite deposits along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River formed by fluids that exsolved from magmas that assimilated substantial amounts of Triassic evaporites during their ascent. Due to their Fe-oxide dominated mineralogy, their association with large-scale sodic–calcic alteration and their spatial and temporal associations with subvolcanic intrusions we interpret them as a special type of IOCG deposits that is characterized by unusually high contents of Na, Ca, Cl and SO 4 in the ore-forming fluids. Evaporite assimilation apparently led to the production of large amounts of high-salinity brine and thus to an enhanced capacity to extract iron from the (gabbro)-dioritic intrusions and to concentrate it in the form of ore bodies. Hence, we believe that evaporite-bearing sedimentary basins are more prospective for magnetite–apatite deposits than evaporite-free basins.
  • References (80)
  • Citations (12)
Cite
References80
Newest
Published on Jun 1, 2014in Geology5.01
Peter Koděra6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Comenius University in Bratislava),
Christoph A. Heinrich58
Estimated H-index: 58
(ETH Zurich)
+ 1 AuthorsJaroslav Lexa15
Estimated H-index: 15
(SAV: Slovak Academy of Sciences)
The recently discovered Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathian magmatic arc is the most extreme example of a porphyry gold deposit, being practically free of copper, molybdenum or any other sulfide minerals. Microanalytical data on fluid inclusions in quartz veinlets, including a characteristic type of banded veinlets, show that this deposit formed from nearly anhydrous Fe-K-Na-Cl salt melts containing ∼10 ppm Au, coexisting with hydrous vapor of very low density. This exceptional fluid ev...
Published on Mar 1, 2014in Journal of Geochemical Exploration3.47
Wenhao Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences),
Jun Zhang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 1 AuthorsJian Wang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract The Cretaceous Luzong and Ningwu volcanic basins in eastern China contain numerous magnetite–apatite deposits with similar geological characteristics and mineralization ages (~ 130 Ma). These deposits, however, occur at distinctly different burial depths. To explain this difference, LA-ICP-MS apatite U–Pb and fission track double dating of five samples were carried out to establish the thermal histories from crystallization to the exhumation of four representative deposits: the deeply b...
Published on Mar 1, 2014in Chemical Geology3.62
Mark A. Kendrick25
Estimated H-index: 25
(ANU: Australian National University),
Matthew G. Jackson27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)
+ 3 AuthorsJon D. Woodhead49
Estimated H-index: 49
(University of Melbourne)
Abstract In order to improve characterisation of volatiles in the EM1 and EM2 mantle sources, which are interpreted to contain subducted sedimentary or lithospheric components, we report electron microprobe, FTIR and SIMS CO 2 , H 2 O, S, F and Cl concentrations of variably enriched glasses from Pitcairn and Society seamounts in Polynesia. The analyses complement previously published Cl, Br and I data for some of the same glasses and all the techniques show reasonable agreement of better than 5–...
Published on Jan 1, 2014
W.C. Pat Shanks5
Estimated H-index: 5
(USGS: United States Geological Survey)
In this chapter, the intent is to summarize the results of traditional stable isotope studies (mainly H, B, O, C, and S) that have greatly contributed to the understanding of ore-forming processes over the last 60 years and to provide an up-to-date assessment of the application of new nontraditional isotope systems (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Hg, and Tl).
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Acta Petrologica Sinica1.32
Y Fan1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Yn Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 3 AuthorsWc Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
The Lu-Zong basin is one of the important parts of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, where there are widespread iron deposits. The volcanic and intrusive plutons occur widely in Lu-Zong basin, including four formations of volcanic rocks, such as Longmenyuan Formation, Zhuanqiao Formation, Shuangmiao Formation and Fushan Formation and 34 intrusive plutons. Nihe deposit located in the northwest part of Lu-Zong basin, which is a new found large iron deposit. However, the prec...
Published on Jan 1, 2014
Mark D. Barton29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UA: University of Arizona)
The Fe oxide(–Cu–Au–REE–P–U) family of Cu, Fe, and/or Au deposits (or IOCG) represents a geochemically coherent but geologically diverse group that formed globally from the Archean to the Holocene. IOCG systems exhibit intense, voluminous Na–Ca–K–Fe(–H) hydrothermal alteration related to flow of moderately to highly saline metal-rich, sulfur-poor brines. These fluids account for the characteristic sulfide-poor, oxide-rich mineralogy and the alkali-rich character of the alteration and for the var...
Published on Jan 1, 2014
Steven D. Scott33
Estimated H-index: 33
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Acta Petrologica Sinica1.32
Li Yan1
Estimated H-index: 1
The Middle-Lower Yangtze Polymetallic Ore Belt is one of the most important metallogenic belts in East China,comprising more than 200 polymetallic( Cu-Fe-Au,Mo,Zn,Pb,Ag) deposits. Ningwu and Luzong ore distrcts are the most important component of this belt. In these districts,volcanic-subvolcanic rocks,intrusions and subvolcanic rocks-related iron deposits which are well known as porphyrite iron deposits in China are widespread,during the Late Mesozoic. Based on the geological characteristics,sp...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta4.26
Mark A. Kendrick25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Melbourne),
Richard J. Arculus54
Estimated H-index: 54
(ANU: Australian National University)
+ 1 AuthorsMasahiko Honda28
Estimated H-index: 28
(ANU: Australian National University)
Abstract Volatiles are critically important in controlling the chemical and physical properties of the mantle. However, determining mantle volatile abundances via the preferred proxy of submarine volcanic glass can be hampered by seawater assimilation. This study shows how combined Cl, Br, I, K and H 2 O abundances can be used to unambiguously constrain the dominant mechanism by which melts assimilate seawater-derived components, and provide an improved method for determining mantle H 2 O and Cl...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology3.23
G.W. Lester2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Queen's University),
Alan H. Clark36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Queen's University)
+ 1 AuthorsH. R. Naslund14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Binghamton University)
Isobaric (200 MPa) experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of H2O alone or in combination with P, S, F or Cl on liquid-phase separation in melts in the systems Fe2SiO4–Fe3O4–KAlSi2O6–SiO2, Fe3O4–KAlSi2O6–SiO2 and Fe3O4–Fe2O3–KAlSi2O6–SiO2 with or without plagioclase (An50). Experiments were heated in a rapid-quench internally heated pressure vessel at 1,075, 1,150 or 1,200 °C for 2 h. Experimental fO2 was maintained at QFM, NNO or MH oxygen buffers. H2O alone or in combination...
Cited By12
Newest
Published on 2019in Ore Geology Reviews3.39
Chao Duan (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources), Yanhe Li3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources)
+ 5 AuthorsWei Li (China University of Geosciences)
Abstract Iron oxide–apatite (IOA) deposits are an important type of iron deposit that may host large reserves of iron and other elements. The Washan deposit in the Ningwu Ore District is a classic giant IOA deposit hosted by porphyritic diorite. At Washan, four Fe mineralization stages have been identified with clear crosscutting relationships, forming four types of ores: disseminated ores, breccia ores, and magnetite–actinolite and magnetite–apatite–actinolite veins. Trace element concentration...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta4.26
Zhi-Kun Su (China University of Geosciences), Xin-Fu Zhao20
Estimated H-index: 20
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 2 AuthorsAlbert H. Hofstra17
Estimated H-index: 17
(USGS: United States Geological Survey)
Abstract Tourmaline is a common boron-bearing mineral in hydrothermal system and has been widely used as a mineral probe to reconstruct geological processes because of its broad range in composition and resistance to metasomatic alteration. The origin of Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits, commonly linked to andesitic subvolcanic or volcanic rocks, is highly controversial. Constraints on the evolution of these mineralizing systems are needed to advance understanding of the ore-forming...
Published on May 1, 2019in Ore Geology Reviews3.39
Andreas Audétat28
Estimated H-index: 28
,
Daohan Zhang4
Estimated H-index: 4
Abstract This study reports concentration data for Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Se, Rb, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, Ce, Ta, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U in 124 high-temperature (350–700 °C) magmatic-hydrothermal fluids investigated from five barren, six sub-economically Mo- or Cu-mineralized, and five economically Sn-, W-, Cu, Mo- or REE-mineralized granodioritic to granitic intrusions, based on Laser-ablation ICP-MS analysis of 304 individual fluid...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Economic Geology3.29
Wei Li (China University of Geosciences), Guiqing Xie1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources)
+ 2 AuthorsJiahao Zheng (SU: Southern University and A&M College)
Published on Oct 26, 2018in International Geology Review3.00
Xi Zhang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(USTC: University of Science and Technology of China),
Xiaoyong Yang19
Estimated H-index: 19
(USTC: University of Science and Technology of China),
Franco Pirajno48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
ABSTRACTIn this study, Early Cretaceous skarn deposits and genesis of their host diorite/monzodiorite porphyry in the Xuzhou-Huaibei (Xu-Huai) region, northern Anhui-Jiangsu have been discussed by detailed geochemical work. In-situ zircon U–Pb dating of the diorites related to Fe–Cu–Au deposits shows that they were formed between 131.4 ± 1.5 Ma and 130.8 ± 1.8 Ma. Geochemical data indicate a depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE) in the diorite porphyry with similarity to that of arc-r...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Journal of Asian Earth Sciences2.76
Yinan Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Hefei University of Technology),
Yu Fan12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Hefei University of Technology)
+ 4 AuthorsL Zhang9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UTAS: University of Tasmania)
The iron-copper-gold belt in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River region is among the most important metallogenic provinces in eastern China. The Luzong (Lujiang—Zongyang) ore district hosts many significant iron deposits in the Luzong Basin and is an important part of this belt. The Yangshan deposit is hosted in the Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the middle Luzong Basin. The Makou deposit in the southern-central Luzong Basin has orebodies at the contact between gabbro-diorite and volcanic rocks of ...
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Economic Geology3.29
Daohan Zhang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bayreuth),
Andreas Audétat28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Bayreuth)
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Journal of Asian Earth Sciences2.76
Wenhao Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences),
Man-Rong Jiang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 3 AuthorsHuan Li11
Estimated H-index: 11
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract The Meishan iron deposit contains 338 Mt of iron-ore reserves at 39% Fe and represents the largest magnetite–apatite deposit in the Ningwu Basin of eastern China. Controversy has long existed about whether this deposit had a hydrothermal or iron-oxide melt origin. Iron mineralization is genetically related to plutons that are composed of gabbro-diorite, which were emplaced at 130 ± 1 Ma. These rocks have SiO 2 contents of 51.72–54.60 wt%, Na 2 O contents of 3.47–4.04 wt%, K 2 O contents...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Franco Pirajno48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
Halogens (and associated volatiles) in hydrothermal solutions are key elements responsible for the genesis of mineral systems. Chlorine is probably the most common halogen, responsible for complexing metals and transporting them in hydrothermal solutions. The F halogen can be extremely powerful for the transport of metals in some specific mineral systems (e.g., IOCG, carbonatites), in addition to forming their own mineral species, such as fluorites. In this chapter halogen complexes and ligands ...
View next paperEvaporitic-source model for igneous-related Fe oxide–(REE-Cu-Au-U) mineralization