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To Wait in Tier 1 or Intervene Immediately: A Randomized Experiment Examining First-Grade Response to Intervention in Reading

Published on Oct 1, 2014in Exceptional Children
· DOI :10.1177/0014402914532234
Stephanie Al Otaiba31
Estimated H-index: 31
(SMU: Southern Methodist University),
Carol McDonald Connor41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
+ 4 AuthorsRichard K. Wagner52
Estimated H-index: 52
(FSU: Florida State University)
Sources
Abstract
This randomized controlled experiment compared the efficacy of two response-to-intervention (RTI) models—typical RTI and dynamic RTI—and included 34 first-grade classrooms (n = 522 students) across 10 socioeconomically and culturally diverse schools. Typical RTI was designed to follow the two-stage RTI decision rules that wait to assess response to Tier 1 in many districts, whereas dynamic RTI provided Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions immediately according to students’ initial screening results. Interventions were identical across conditions except for when intervention began. Reading assessments included letter-sound, word, passage reading, and teacher-reported severity of reading difficulties. An intent-to-treat analysis based on multilevel modeling indicated an overall effect favoring the dynamic RTI condition (d = .36); growth curve analyses demonstrated that students in dynamic RTI showed an immediate score advantage and that effects accumulated across the year. Analyses of standard score outcomes conf...
  • References (35)
  • Citations (42)
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References35
Newest
#1Athena Lentini McAlenney (St. Thomas Aquinas College)H-Index: 1
#2Michael D. Coyne (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 27
The current study examined a solution to high false positive reading risk classification rates in early kindergarten by investigating a method of identifying students with possible false positive risk classifications and returning them to general classroom instruction. Researchers assessed kindergarten students (N = 105) identified as at risk who were participating in a full-year Tier 2 reading intervention program. Students with very strong initial curriculum mastery (n = 9) were identified as ...
8 CitationsSource
#1Jennifer K. Gilbert (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 15
#2Donald L. Compton (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 38
Last. Eunsoo Cho (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 9
view all 7 authors...
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n = 212) were randomly assigned to receive Tier 2 small-group supplemental tutoring (n = 134) or to continue in Tier 1 (n = 78). Progress-monitoring data were...
37 CitationsSource
#1David R. Hill (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 11
#2Seth A. King (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 8
Last. Jane Partanen (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. A literature search identified 22 empirical studies from which conclusions were drawn. Results suggest that fidelity of implementation is typically monitored at Tier 2 and that alignment between tiers of intervention is often apparent yet not...
32 CitationsSource
#1Donald L. Compton (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 38
#2Jennifer K. Gilbert (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 15
Last. Bobette Bouton (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 10
view all 8 authors...
Response-to-intervention (RTI) approaches to disability identification are meant to put an end to the so-called wait-to-fail requirement associated with IQ discrepancy. However, in an unfortunate irony, there is a group of children who wait to fail in RTI frameworks. That is, they must fail both general classroom instruction (Tier 1) and small-group intervention (Tier 2) before becoming eligible for the most intensive intervention (Tier 3). The purpose of this article was to determine how to pre...
45 CitationsSource
#1Douglas FuchsH-Index: 78
#2Lynn S. FuchsH-Index: 88
Last. Donald L. ComptonH-Index: 38
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During the past decade, responsiveness to intervention (RTI) has become popular among many practitioners as a means of transforming schooling into a multilevel prevention system. Popularity aside, its successful implementation requires ambitious intent, a comprehensive structure, and coordinated service delivery. An effective RTI also depends on building-based personnel with specialized expertise at all levels of the prevention system. Most agree on both its potential for strengthening schooling...
187 CitationsSource
#1Stephanie Al Otaiba (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 31
#2Jessica Sidler Folsom (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 10
Last. Carol McDonald Connor (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 41
view all 8 authors...
Many schools are implementing multitier response-to-intervention (RTI) models to reduce reading difficulties. This study was part of our larger ongoing longitudinal RTI investigation within the Florida Learning Disabilities Center grant and was conducted in 7 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse schools. We observed reading instruction in 20 classrooms, examined response rates to kindergarten Tier 1 instruction, and predicted students' first-grade reading performance based on kindergarten gr...
35 CitationsSource
#1Stephanie Al Otaiba (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 31
#2Carol McDonald Connor (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 41
Last. Zhi Li (JPMorgan Chase)H-Index: 3
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to examine whether kindergarten teachers could learn to differentiate classroom reading instruction using Individualized Student Instruction for Kindergarten (ISI-K) and to test the efficacy of differentiation on reading outcomes. The study involved 14 schools, 23 ISI-K (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teachers (n = 251 students). Data sources included classroom observations, parent surveys, and student assessments of lang...
72 CitationsSource
Abstract Models of Response to Intervention (RTI) include parameters of assessment and instruction. This study focuses on assessment with the purpose of developing a screening battery that validly and efficiently identifies first-grade children at risk for reading problems. In an RTI model, these children would be candidates for early intervention. We examined accuracy, fluency, growth, and teacher rating measures as predictors of child status (at risk, not at risk) at the end of the school year...
40 CitationsSource
#1Daryl F. Mellard (KU: University of Kansas)H-Index: 20
#2Melinda A. McKnight (KU: University of Kansas)H-Index: 3
Last. Joanna Jordan (KU: University of Kansas)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Response-to-intervention (RTI) frameworks have become increasingly prevalent in schools as an academic and behavioral prevention and intervention organizational approach that emphasizes students' responsiveness and nonresponsiveness as indicators of appropriate curricular and instructional decisions. Theoretical as well as practical descriptions of RTI always include the concept of increasingly intense interventions to ensure that students receive sufficient learning opportunities to optimize th...
63 CitationsSource
#1Jeanne Wanzek (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 28
#2Sharon Vaughn (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 79
This article provides an overview of research on intensive reading interventions to inform Tier 3 instruction for students with reading disabilities. Tier 3 interventions are typically provided to those students who demonstrate inadequate progress after receiving less intensive Tier 2 interventions. A conceptual overview of Tier 3 interventions within a Response to Intervention model is provided, along with a review of research on effectiveness of instructional practices for students with signif...
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#1Brahm Norwich (University of Exeter)H-Index: 27
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ABSTRACTThis paper describes the context, processes and issues experienced over 5 years in which a RCT was carried out to evaluate a programme for children aged 7–8 who were struggling with their r...
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#1Jeanne Wanzek (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 28
#2Stephanie Al Otaiba (SMU: Southern Methodist University)H-Index: 31
Last. Yaacov Petscher (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 32
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AbstractThis study examined the effectiveness of the intensive implementation of a multicomponent reading intervention (Voyager Passport) with 306 fourth-grade students with severe reading difficul...
1 CitationsSource
#1Nuria Gutiérrez (ULL: University of La Laguna)
#2Juan E. Jiménez (ULL: University of La Laguna)H-Index: 24
Last. Rocío C. Seoane (ULL: University of La Laguna)
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Early identification of learning difficulties is a critical component of the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. In kindergarten, the screening of foundational reading skills can provide a data-b...
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#1Eunsoo Cho (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 9
#2Donald L. Compton (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 38
Last. Cynde Katherine Josol (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 1
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We examined whether dynamic decoding assessment (DDA) predicts growth in word reading skill during first grade using latent change score models. In addition, we compared classification accuracy of the DDA to static measures for identifying students at risk for reading disabilities (RD) designated using the dual discrepancy criteria. At the beginning of first grade, students (N = 104) were assessed on the DDA and static measures of word reading, arithmetic, and domain-general and domain-specific ...
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AbstractThis meta-analysis systematically reviewed the most up-to-date literature to determine the effectiveness of reading interventions on measures of word and pseudoword reading, reading compreh...
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Der Response to Intervention-Ansatz (RTI) ist ein Konzept aus dem angloamerikanischen Raum und wird seit Jahrzehnten – vor allem im Bereich des Leseunterrichts und der Leseforderung in der Primarstufe – beforscht. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt in einem ersten Teil die grundlegenden Elemente dieses praventiven Ansatzes vor, bevor im zweiten Teil unterschiedliche Forschungsergebnisse zur Wirkung vorgestellt werden. Obwohl die empirische Befundlage recht eindeutig die positiven Auswirkungen auf di...
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#1Elisabeth A. T. Tilanus (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 3
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AbstractThe present study investigated responsiveness to intervention in children with an earlier versus later diagnosis of dyslexia. We examined differences between second (n = 122; early diagnosi...
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#1Lina Shanley (UO: University of Oregon)H-Index: 2
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: The provision of high-quality early mathematics instruction and intervention is critical to ensure that all students are on track for academic success. Given this, identifying and utilizing assessments that can enable the detection of nonresponse to mathematics instruction is a critical aspect of early intervention. To this end, the current study explored the extent to which there were distinct patterns of performance on embedded assessments for intervention participants within the context of ...
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#1Florina Erbeli (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 3
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