To Wait in Tier 1 or Intervene Immediately: A Randomized Experiment Examining First-Grade Response to Intervention in Reading

Published on Oct 1, 2014in Exceptional Children
· DOI :10.1177/0014402914532234
Stephanie Al Otaiba31
Estimated H-index: 31
(SMU: Southern Methodist University),
Carol McDonald Connor41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
+ 4 AuthorsRichard K. Wagner52
Estimated H-index: 52
(FSU: Florida State University)
This randomized controlled experiment compared the efficacy of two response-to-intervention (RTI) models—typical RTI and dynamic RTI—and included 34 first-grade classrooms (n = 522 students) across 10 socioeconomically and culturally diverse schools. Typical RTI was designed to follow the two-stage RTI decision rules that wait to assess response to Tier 1 in many districts, whereas dynamic RTI provided Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions immediately according to students’ initial screening results. Interventions were identical across conditions except for when intervention began. Reading assessments included letter-sound, word, passage reading, and teacher-reported severity of reading difficulties. An intent-to-treat analysis based on multilevel modeling indicated an overall effect favoring the dynamic RTI condition (d = .36); growth curve analyses demonstrated that students in dynamic RTI showed an immediate score advantage and that effects accumulated across the year. Analyses of standard score outcomes conf...
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