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ALARP and CBA all in the same game

Published on Jul 1, 2015in Safety Science 3.62
· DOI :10.1016/j.ssci.2015.02.012
Ben Ale20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
D.N.D. Hartford1
Estimated H-index: 1
(BC Hydro),
D. Slater1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Cardiff University)
Cite
Abstract
The concept of reducing risk As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) as presented by the UK Health and Safety Executive for the purpose of discharging its decision-taking responsibilities and the principle of balancing cost and benefits through monetary Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) which is used more widely in health and safety decision-making seem to occupy the extremes of the decision making spectrum. ALARP seems on the qualitative, holistic, principles based side whereas CBA seems on the quantitative, limited, precisely defined side. These characteristics expose both principles to criticism. Application of the ALARP concept may to lead to different decisions in similar contexts resulting in uncertainty and unpredictability in decision making. CBA leads to decisions in which only money counts and all that cannot be expressed in money or is perceived of no monetary value is neglected. In this paper this issue is explored in more depth, and it is concluded that they are part of the general decision making process. The nature of the relevant safety laws and how they are applied frame the application of these concepts. If the level of acceptable risk is not explicitly set by law, the risk level resulting from compliance to the regulations is just as accidental as the Value of a Statistical Life (VOSL) found from ex post evaluations of decisions. ALARP, QRA and CBA are part of the grander scheme of making decisions. Throughout, the focus is on the principle rather than the practices of ALARP and CBA in reducing risk.
  • References (19)
  • Citations (23)
Cite
References19
Newest
Published on Apr 1, 2013in Risk Analysis 2.56
Tim Bedford20
Estimated H-index: 20
Group risk is usually represented by FN-curves showing the frequency of different accident sizes for a given activity. Many governments regulate group risk through FN-criterion lines which define the tolerable location of an FN-curve. However, to compare different risk reduction alternatives one must be able to rank FN-curves. The two main problems in doing this are that the FN-curve contains multiple frequencies, and that there are usually large epistemic uncertainties about the curve. Since th...
Published on Dec 1, 2009
Marija Bockarjova6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Piet Rietveld61
Estimated H-index: 61
,
Erik T. Verhoef39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Tinbergen Institute)
So far no extensive literature exists on the valuation of extreme natural hazards pertaining low frequency and high potential impact. In this paper, we attain to fill this gap with the study of flood risk in the Netherlands by means of a stated preference approach. From the choice experiments in our large-scale questionnaire, we expect to receive the estimates of the value of statistical life in flooding, the valuation of inconvenience from getting an injury in flooding and the valuation of inco...
Published on May 30, 2008
Ortwin Renn50
Estimated H-index: 50
1. Introduction 2. What Is Risk? 3.Pre-assessment 4. Appraisal 5. Risk Perception 6. Risk Evaluation 7. Risk Management 8. Risk Communication 9. Risk Participation 10. The Social and Political Context of Risk Governance 11. Conclusions
Published on Apr 1, 2005in Risk Analysis 2.56
B. J. M. Ale1
Estimated H-index: 1
In managing major accident hazards in industry risk, both the United Kingdom and the Netherlands use quantitative risk analysis and quantified risk criteria. These should be understood in the historical, legal, and political context in which they were drawn up. Even when criteria are numerically the same they do not necessarily mean the same thing. The legal and historical context differs widely between the two countries. Nevertheless, it is surprising that the final results in terms of land use...
Published on Feb 1, 2005
Andrew W. Evans18
Estimated H-index: 18
This paper has two principal sections. The first reviews railway risks since 1967, focusing on fatal collisions, derailments and overruns on running lines of the national railway system. Risks for most types of accident have declined substantially, but until the recent completion of the train protection and warning system, fatal accidents due to trains passing signals at danger at conflicting junctions persisted at about one accident per billion train-kilometres. The second main section discusse...
Published on Nov 1, 2003in Accident Analysis & Prevention 3.06
Arianne de Blaeij8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Raymond J.G.M. Florax35
Estimated H-index: 35
+ 1 AuthorsErik T. Verhoef39
Estimated H-index: 39
Costs of accidents make up an important part of the total external cost of traffic. A substantial proportion of accident costs is related to fatal accidents. In the evaluation of fatal accident costs the availability of an estimate of the economic value of a statistical life is pivotal. We present an overview of the empirical literature on the value of statistical life in road safety (VOSL), and use meta-analysis to determine variables that explain the variation in VOSL estimates reported in the...
Published on Jan 1, 1999
Mike Holland5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Jacquie Berry1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Dan Forster3
Estimated H-index: 3
Published on Nov 1, 1997in Safety Science 3.62
Jens Juul Rasmussen44
Estimated H-index: 44
Abstract In spite of all efforts to design safer systems, we still witness severe, large-scale accidents. A basic question is: Do we actually have adequate models of accident causation in the present dynamic society? The socio-technical system involved in risk management includes several levels ranging from legislators, over managers and work planners, to system operators. This system is presently stressed by a fast pace of technological change, by an increasingly aggressive, competitive environ...
Published on Apr 1, 1997in Risk Analysis 2.56
Andrew W. Evans18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Lond: University of London),
Neville Q. Verlander1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Lond: University of London)
This paper is concerned with the intellectual framework in which judgments are made about the tolerability of so-called societal risk. The current practical approach is based on the position of the FN-curves representing the risks from hazardous systems in relation to criterion FN-lines. The objections to FN-criteria are that they can give unreasonable conclusions and that they are inconsistent. Statistical decision theory suggests an alternative and preferable rule of minimising the expected di...
Cited By23
Newest
Published on Nov 1, 2019in Reliability Engineering & System Safety 4.04
Leif Inge Kjærvoll Sørskår1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Stavanger),
Jon Tømmerås Selvik3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Stavanger),
E.B. Abrahamsen and Terje Aven48
Estimated H-index: 48
(University of Stavanger)
Abstract In the oil and gas industry, there is a strong focus on reducing production loss, and in the last decade the industry has adopted Vision Zero as a governing principle, to meet this goal. A previous paper has concluded that, although the vision is acceptable, in several ways, as a rational goal in this context, it does not sufficiently recognize the relevance of other concerns in risk management decision-making. Another principle in risk management that has a strong focus on reducing ris...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Reliability Engineering & System Safety 4.04
E.B. Abrahamsen and Terje Aven48
Estimated H-index: 48
(University of Stavanger)
Abstract The precautionary principle is well known among scientists, politicians and the public in general. However, the closely related and broader cautionary principle is not so often referred to. Whereas the precautionary principle is typically invoked in cases of scientific uncertainties, the cautionary principle applies to the more general situation of risk and uncertainties. The present paper summarises and extends the argumentation adopted to justify the cautionary principle and presents ...
Published on Jul 11, 2019in Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems 2.02
Georg Hagele2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Dirk Söffker14
Estimated H-index: 14
Autonomous or semi-autonomous aerial systems are used in different application domains to simplify or assist humans tasks. In this context, their behavior has to be verifiably safe. Here safe behavior denotes system’s interaction with the environment with freedom from unacceptable risk for the environment and the system itself. Traditionally, run-time technical reliability assessment is not considered for risk areas determination. Run-time definition and online control of risk areas based on cur...
Panagiotis Ntzeremes1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Konstantinos Kirytopoulos13
Estimated H-index: 13
Abstract Fire is the foremost critical event for road tunnels' safety. Therefore, the European Commission introduced the Directive 2004/54/EC for enhancing tunnels' safety since they constitute a key element of the Trans-European Road Network. The Directive has established a common ground for tunnels' safety evaluation providing certain minimum requirements while introducing officially the use of risk assessment. Despite the significant progress, this paper illustrates that further efforts are n...
Published on Mar 13, 2019in Energies 2.71
Peng Zhang2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Guojin Qin2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Yihuan Wang2
Estimated H-index: 2
In view of the vegetation reduction caused by the continuous construction of oil and gas pipelines, the pipelines have been designed to be laid in one ditch to reduce land occupation. However, owing to the small spacing between the pipelines, the fault correlation between pipelines has been proven to increase the potential hazard of adjacent pipelines and routing environments. The neglect of failure correlation in existing risk assessment methods leads to inaccurate results, which will lead to e...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Safety Science 3.62
David Ríos Insua4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CSIC: Spanish National Research Council),
Cesar Alfaro4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 2 AuthorsLópez Bernal F3
Estimated H-index: 3
Abstract Aviation safety is essential for the healthy growth and sustainability of the global economy. The implementation of Safety Management Systems to support safe service delivery has become one of the most important goals within the airline industry over the last years. However, in most cases the involved organisations use unsophisticated methods based on risk matrices for the development of such systems. In this paper, we present models to forecast and assess the consequences of aviation s...
Published on Dec 28, 2018in Sustainability 2.59
Peng Zhang2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Guojin Qin2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Yihuan Wang2
Estimated H-index: 2
In the transportation process of urban gas pipelines, there are various uncontrollable risks and uncertainties possibly leading to the failure of gas pipelines and thereby serious consequences, such as city gas shutdown, nearby casualties, and environmental pollution. To avoid these hazards, numerous studies have been performed in identifying and evaluating the occurrence of risks and uncertainties to pipelines. However, discussions on risk reduction and other maintenance work are scarce; theref...
Published on Dec 7, 2018in Sustainability 2.59
Antonio Nesticò10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Shuquan He1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsGabriella Maselli1
Estimated H-index: 1
The process of allocating financial resources is extremely complex—both because the selection of investments depends on multiple, and interrelated, variables, and constraints that limit the eligibility domain of the solutions, and because the feasibility of projects is influenced by risk factors. In this sense, it is essential to develop economic evaluations on a probabilistic basis. Nevertheless, for the civil engineering sector, the literature emphasizes the centrality of risk management , in ...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Knowledge Based Systems 5.10
Xiaoyang Yao (China Jiliang University), Jianping LiXiaolei19
Estimated H-index: 19
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 1 AuthorsDengsheng Wu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract A perfect combination of fact-based and value-based judgments is what multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) issues pursue. Tolerability constraints, an important part of value-based judgments, are easily observable and have drawn attention in theory. However, their practical applications in the MCDM process are still in their infancy. This paper aims to fill the gap between theory and application. A framework for tolerability constraints in the context of non-independent criteria is ...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 3.94
Panagiotis Ntzeremes1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NTUA: National Technical University of Athens),
Konstantinos Kirytopoulos13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UniSA: University of South Australia)
Abstract Fire safety is an important aspect of underground road tunnels’ operation. Undertaking high traffic volumes, they are one of the most critical infrastructure for the daily operation of modern urban networks. Aiming to guarantee their safety, risk assessment has been established as a valuable tool. However, the deterministic approach of existing methods has weaknesses in addressing the embedded uncertainty included in important parameters of the system. This paper, applying a stochastic-...