Phylogenetic Relationships and Morphological Character Evolution of Photosynthetic Euglenids (Excavata) Inferred from Taxon-rich Analyses of Five Genes

Published on May 1, 2015in Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2.54
· DOI :10.1111/jeu.12192
Anna Karnkowska5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Warsaw),
Matthew S. Bennett11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Michigan State University)
+ 3 AuthorsRichard E. Triemer25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Michigan State University)
Abstract
Photosynthetic euglenids acquired chloroplasts by secondary endosymbiosis, which resulted in changes to their mode of nutrition and affected the evolution of their morphological characters. Mapping morphological characters onto a reliable molecular tree could elucidate major trends of those changes. We analyzed nucleotide sequence data from regions of three nuclear-encoded genes (nSSU, nLSU, hsp90), one chloroplast-encoded gene (cpSSU) and one nuclear-encoded chloroplast gene (psbO) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 59 photosynthetic euglenid species. Our results were consistent with previous works; most genera were monophyletic, except for the polyphyletic genus Euglena, and the paraphyletic genus Phacus. We also analyzed character evolution in photosynthetic euglenids using our phylogenetic tree and eight morphological traits commonly used for generic and species diagnoses, including: characters corresponding to well-defined clades, apomorphies like presence of lorica and mucilaginous stalks, and homoplastic characters like rigid cells and presence of large paramylon grains. This research indicated that pyrenoids were lost twice during the evolution of phototrophic euglenids, and that mucocysts, which only occur in the genus Euglena, evolved independently at least twice. In contrast, the evolution of cell shape and chloroplast morphology was difficult to elucidate, and could not be unambiguously reconstructed in our analyses.
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References70
Published on Nov 16, 2005in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Sylwia Kosmala5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Warsaw),
Anna Karnkowska5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Warsaw)
+ 2 AuthorsBożena Zakryś11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Warsaw)
We studied the morphological diversity and analyzed the small subunit rDNA sequences of two taxa formerly known as Euglena spirogyra Ehr. and Euglena fusca (Klebs) Lemmermann. Our studies confirmed that the two should have the rank of a species, namely Lepocinclis spirogyroides (Ehr.) Marin et Melkonian and Lepocinclis fusca (Klebs) Kosmala et Zakrys comb. nov. (Euglenophyceae). We are defining new diagnostic features for these species, namely the size and the shape of the cells and the shape of...
24 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 20, 2010in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Anna Karnkowska-Ishikawa8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Warsaw),
Rafał Milanowski10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Warsaw)
+ 1 AuthorsBożena Zakryś11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Warsaw)
The establishment of epitypes (together with emended diagnoses) for seven species of Phacus Dujard. [Phacus oscillans G. A. Klebs, Phacus parvulus G. A. Klebs, Phacus pusillus Lemmerm., Phacus skujae Skvortzov, Phacus inflexus (Kisselew) Pochm., Phacus polytrophos Pochm., and Phacus smulkowskianus (Zakrys ´) Kusber] was achieved by literature studies, verification of morphological diagnostic features (cell size, cell shape), as well as molecular characters (SSU rDNA). The investigated Phacus spe...
17 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2012in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Anna Karnkowska-Ishikawa8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Warsaw),
Rafał Milanowski10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Warsaw)
+ 1 AuthorsBożena Zakryś11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Warsaw)
The establishment of epitypes (together with the emended diagnoses) for three species of Euglenaria Karnkowska, E. W. Linton et Kwiatowski [Eu. anabaena (Mainx) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; Eu. caudata (Hubner) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; and Eu. clavata (Skuja) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton] and two species of Euglena Ehrenberg [E. granulata (Klebs) Schmitz and E. velata Klebs] was achieved due to literature studies, verification of morphological diagnostic features (cell size, cell shape, number o...
13 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1997in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Ann E. Montegut-Felkner3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Richard E. Triemer25
Estimated H-index: 25
The small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) coding regions sequenced from the euglenoids Petalomonas cantuscygni, Peranema trichophorum, and Khawkinea quartana were used to assess the phylogenetic relationships of these genera within the Euglenozoa. Phylogenies derived from distance, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods infer that the euglenoids and kinetoplastids form sister clades within a monophyletic assemblage. Distances representative of closely related lineages separate the genera within the K...
43 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2003in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Patrick J. P. Brown3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Georgia),
Boz.ena Zakryś2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Warsaw),
Mark A. Farmer20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Georgia)
Chloroplast morphology was investigated in five species of euglenophytes: Trachelomonas volvocinopsis Swirenko, Strombomonas verrucosa (Daday) Deflandre, Strombomonas costata Deflandre, Colacium mucronatum Bourrelly et Chafaud, and Colacium vesiculosum Ehrenberg. All five species share a common plastid morphotype: disk-shaped plastids with a pyrenoid that protrudes asymmetrically toward the center of the cell and is capped by a single large grain of paramylon that conforms to the shape of the py...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2009in Molecular Biology and Evolution 10.22
Monique Turmel41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Laval University),
Marie-Christine Gagnon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Laval University)
+ 2 AuthorsClaude Lemieux45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Laval University)
Because they represent the earliest divergences of the Chlorophyta and include the smallest known eukaryotes (e.g., the coccoid Ostreococcus), the morphologically diverse unicellular green algae making up the Prasinophyceae are central to our understanding of the evolutionary patterns that accompanied the radiation of chlorophytes and the reduction of cell size in some lineages. Seven prasinophyte lineages, four of which exhibit a coccoid cell organization (no flagella nor scales), were uncovere...
142 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1999in Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2.54
Eric W. Linton10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Rutgers University),
Dana Hittner1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Rutgers University)
+ 2 AuthorsRichard E. Triemer25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Rutgers University)
The euglenoids are an ancient and extremely diverse lineage of eukaryotic flagellates with unclear relationships among taxa. Synapomorphies for the euglenoids include a surface pellicle and a closed mitosis with a series of separate sub-spindles. The taxonomy currently in use is inconsistent with the available data and needs revision. Most euglenoid phylogenies are largely intuitive reconstructions based on a limited number of morphological characters. Therefore, we have added molecular characte...
54 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2004in Protist 2.70
Alastair G. B. Simpson37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Canadian Institute for Advanced Research),
Erin E. Gill11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Canadian Institute for Advanced Research)
+ 2 AuthorsAndrew J. Roger52
Estimated H-index: 52
(Canadian Institute for Advanced Research)
Summary Many important relationships amongst kinetoplastids, including the position of trypanosomatids, remain uncertain, with limited taxon sampling of markers other than small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA). We report gene sequences for cytosolic heat shock proteins 90 and/or 70 (HSP90, HSP70) from the potentially early-diverging kinetoplastids Ichthyobodo necator and Rhynchobodo sp., and from bodonid clades ‘2’ (Parabodonidae) and ‘3’ (Eubodonidae). Some of the new cytosolic HSP70 sequences ...
49 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1995in Nucleic Acids Research 11.56
Michael D. Thompson2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Donald W. Copertino6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 2 AuthorsRichard B. Hallick23
Estimated H-index: 23
Abstract The origin of present day introns is a subject of spirited debate. Any intron evolution theory must account for not only nuclear spliceosomal introns but also their antecedents. The evolution of group II introns is fundamental to this debate, since group II introns are the proposed progenitors of nuclear spliceosomal introns and are found in ancient genes from modern organisms. We have studied the evolution of chloroplast introns and twintrons (introns within introns) in the genus Eugle...
40 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1984in Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 1.46
Peter A. Kivic5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Tennessee),
Patricia L. Walne17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Tennessee)
Winthout close phylogenetic ties to any of the other algae, the Euglenophyta are a taxonomic enigma. The argument is made here that the euglenophytes have extensive morphological homology with the zooflagellte trypanosomatids, bodonids, andIsonema. A phylogenetic sequence is postulated linking these group; the available data suggest that the euglenophytes had their origin in these zooflagellates and that the introduction of the chloroplast and a phototrophic mode of nutrition was a relatively la...
100 Citations Source Cite
Cited By16
Published on Aug 20, 2015in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Jong Im Kim10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Chungnam National University),
Eric W. Linton10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Central Michigan University),
Woongghi Shin14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Chungnam National University)
To establish taxonomy and understand phylogenetic relationships among strains and species of the photosynthetic euglenoids, we performed phylogenetic analyses based on a four gene sequence dataset (nr SSU and LSU rDNA, and pt SSU and LSU rDNA) from 343 taxa (including three outgroup). The phylogenetic tree based on the combined dataset was split into two major clades: Euglenaceae and Phacaceae. The family Euglenaceae was a well-supported monophyletic group containing eight genera (Colacium, Cryp...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2.54
Matthew S. Bennett11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Michigan State University),
Richard E. Triemer25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Michigan State University)
Over the last few years multiple studies have been published outlining chloroplast genomes that represent many of the photosynthetic euglenid genera. However, these genomes were scattered throughout the euglenophyceaean phylogenetic tree, and focused on comparisons with Euglena gracilis. Here, we present a study exclusively on taxa within the Euglenaceae. Six new chloroplast genomes were characterized, those of Cryptoglena skujai, E. gracilis var. bacillaris, Euglena viridis, Euglenaria anabaena...
22 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Beth A. Kasiborski1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Central Michigan University),
Matthew S. Bennett11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Michigan State University),
Eric W. Linton10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Central Michigan University)
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 16, 2016in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Carlos Eduardo de Mattos Bicudo2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Mariângela Menezes7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)
Euglenophyceae (phototrophic euglenids) are an important lineage within the Euglenida, Euglenozoa. Most of the approximately 3,000 described species are free-living, phototrophic, unicellular flagellates with one to several plastids of secondary origin, three bounding membranes and chlorophylls a and b; but, the lineage also includes colorless species that lost their photosynthesizing capability. They show a typical cell membrane consisting of parallel proteinaceous strips and microtubules locat...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Maja Łukomska‐Kowalczyk3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Warsaw),
Anna Karnkowska5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Warsaw)
+ 2 AuthorsBożena Zakryś11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Warsaw)
Autotrophic euglenids (Euglenophyceae) are a common and abundant group of microbial eukaryotes in freshwater habitats. They have a limited number of features, which can be observed using light microscopy, thus species identification is often problematic. Establishing a barcode for this group is therefore an important step toward the molecular identification of autotrophic euglenids. Based on the literature, we selected verified species and used a plethora of available methods to validate two mol...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2017in Current Genetics 3.57
Lucia Hadariová2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Comenius University in Bratislava),
Matej Vesteg8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Matej Bel University)
+ 2 AuthorsJuraj Krajčovič17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Comenius University in Bratislava)
Euglena gracilis growth with antibacterial agents leads to bleaching, permanent plastid gene loss. Colorless Euglena (Astasia) longa resembles a bleached E. gracilis. To evaluate the role of bleaching in E. longa evolution, the effect of streptomycin, a plastid protein synthesis inhibitor, and ofloxacin, a plastid DNA gyrase inhibitor, on E. gracilis and E. longa growth and plastid DNA content were compared. E. gracilis growth was unaffected by streptomycin and ofloxacin. Quantitative PCR analys...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2017in Journal of Phycology 3.00
Matthew S. Bennett11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Michigan State University),
Shin Han Shiu42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Michigan State University),
Richard E. Triemer25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Michigan State University)
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 14, 2017in Advances in Botanical Research 1.39
Anna M.G. Vanclová2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Charles University in Prague),
Lucia Hadariová2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Charles University in Prague)
+ 1 AuthorsVladimír Hampl21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Charles University in Prague)
Abstract Euglenophytes obtained their plastids from a primary green alga related to extant genus Pyramimonas . The relatively recent establishment of this new organelle is an intriguing evolutionary phenomenon worth studying and comparing with other secondary plastids with a regard to their similarities and differences. A remarkably fast evolution driven by rapid intron gain and diversification is observed in euglenid plastid genomes which often tend to swell in size and rearrange while keeping ...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2018in Harmful Algae 4.14
Yeong Du Yoo26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Kunsan National University),
Kyeong Ah Seong19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Kunsan National University)
+ 6 AuthorsBrian Palenik41
Estimated H-index: 41
(University of California, San Diego)
Abstract The phototrophic euglenophyte Eutreptiella eupharyngea often causes blooms in the coastal waters of many countries, but its mode of nutrition has not been assessed. This species has previously been considered as exclusively auxotrophic. To explore whether E. eupharyngea is a mixotrophic species, the protoplasm of E. eupharyngea cells were examined using light, epifluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy after eubacteria, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., and diverse algal ...
1 Citations Source Cite