Match!

Flightless brown kiwis of New Zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals.

Published on Aug 29, 1995in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America9.58
· DOI :10.1073/pnas.92.18.8254
A J Baker1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
C H Daugherty1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsJ L McLennan1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract
Abstract Using allozymes and mtDNA sequences from the cytochrome b gene, we report that the brown kiwi has the highest levels of genetic structuring observed in birds. Moreover, the mtDNA sequences are, with two minor exceptions, diagnostic genetic markers for each population investigated, even though they are among the more slowly evolving coding regions in this genome. A major unexpected finding was the concordant split in molecular phylogenies between brown kiwis in the southern South Island and elsewhere in New Zealand. This basic phylogeographic boundary halfway down the South Island coincides with a fixed allele difference in the Hb nuclear locus and strongly suggests that two morphologically cryptic species are currently merged under one polytypic species. This is another striking example of how molecular genetic assays can detect phylogenetic discontinuities that are not reflected in traditional morphologically based taxonomies. However, reanalysis of the morphological characters by using phylogenetic methods revealed that the reason for this discordance is that most are primitive and thus are phylogenetically uninformative. Shared-derived morphological characters support the same relationships evident in the molecular phylogenies and, in concert with the molecular data, suggest that as brown kiwis colonized northward from the southern South Island, they retained many primitive characters that confounded earlier systematists. Strong subdivided population structure and cryptic species in brown kiwis seem to have evolved relatively recently as a consequence of Pleistocene range disjunctions, low dispersal power, and genetic drift in small populations.
  • References (4)
  • Citations (97)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
60 Citations
18.1k Citations
117 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References4
Newest
Until the nineteenth century, the various subjects now known as the life sciences were regarded either as arcane studies which had little impact on ordinary daily life, or as a genteel hobby for the leisured classes. The increasing academic rigour and systematisation brought to the study of botany, zoology and other disciplines, and their adoption in university curricula, are reflected in the books reissued in this series.
11 Citations
72 Citations
#1Harry HarrisH-Index: 22
#2D. A. HopkinsonH-Index: 41
2,044 Citations
Chapters'Contents.- I. The geological history of New Zealand and its biota.- Bathymetry and structure.- New Zealand and Gondwanaland.- Early Paleozoic.- The New Zealand geosyncline.- Permian biogeography.- Triassic.- Lower Jurassic (Liassic).- Middle and Upper Jurassic.- The Rangitata orogeny and the disruption of Gondwanaland.- Cretaceous.- Cenozoic.- Paleocene.- Eocene.- Oligocene.- Lower Miocene.- Middle and Upper Miocene.- Pliocene.- Early Pleistocene.- Late Pleistocene.- Conditions during G...
126 CitationsSource
Cited By97
Newest
#1Rebecca S. Taylor (Queen's University)H-Index: 3
#2Mark Bolton (RSPB: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds)H-Index: 21
Last. Vicki L. Friesen (Queen's University)H-Index: 33
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Humans are inherently biased towards naming species based on morphological differences, which can lead to reproductively isolated species being mistakenly classified as one if they are morphologically similar. Recognising cryptic diversity is needed to understand drivers of speciation fully, and for accurate estimates of global biodiversity and assessments for conservation. We investigated cryptic species across the range of band-rumped storm-petrels ( Hydrobates spp.): highly pelagic, ...
Source
#1Daniel J. White (Landcare Research)H-Index: 9
#2Ana Ramón-Laca (Landcare Research)H-Index: 5
Last. Hugh A. RobertsonH-Index: 10
view all 4 authors...
There are currently five recognised species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.), and possibly 11 distinct genetic lineages, all of which are threatened or near threatened. Currently, with only approximately 400 individuals left, the most endangered provenance is Haast tokoeka (Apteryx australis ‘Haast’), classified as ‘Nationally Critical’ (Robertson et al. 2017 in Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2016. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 19. Department of Conservation, Wellington). Several dec...
Source
#1Iliana Medina (ANU: Australian National University)H-Index: 8
#2Georgina M. Cooke (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 11
Last. Terry J. Ord (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 23
view all 3 authors...
Limited dispersal is commonly used to explain differences in diversification rates. An obvious but unexplored factor affecting dispersal is the mode of locomotion used by animals. Whether individuals walk, swim or fly can dictate the type and severity of geographical barriers to dispersal, and determine the general range over which genetic differentiation might occur. We collated information on locomotion mode and genetic differentiation (FST) among vertebrate populations from over 400 published...
7 CitationsSource
#2Leon HuynenH-Index: 15
Last. David M. LambertH-Index: 39
view all 5 authors...
Source
#1Kartik Shanker (IISc: Indian Institute of Science)H-Index: 17
#2S. P. Vijayakumar (IISc: Indian Institute of Science)H-Index: 2
Last. K. N. Ganeshaiah (UASD: University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad)H-Index: 25
view all 3 authors...
The history of ecology and evolutionary biology is rife with attempts to define and delimit species. However, there has been confusion between concepts and criteria, which has led to discussion, debate, and conflict, eventually leading to lack of consistency in delimitation. Here, we provide a broad review of species concepts, a clarification of category versus concept, an account of the general lineage concept (GLC), and finally a way forward for species discovery and delimitation. Historically...
5 CitationsSource
#1Jason T. Weir (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 25
#2Oliver Haddrath (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 10
Last. Allan J. Baker (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 52
view all 5 authors...
Molecular dating largely overturned the paradigm that global cooling during recent Pleistocene glacial cycles resulted in a burst of species diversification although some evidence exists that speciation was commonly promoted in habitats near the expanding and retracting ice sheets. Here, we used a genome-wide dataset of more than half a million base pairs of DNA to test for a glacially induced burst of diversification in kiwi, an avian family distributed within several hundred kilometers of the ...
25 CitationsSource
#1Kerry A. Weston (University of Otago)H-Index: 4
#2Sabrina S. Taylor (LSU: Louisiana State University)H-Index: 15
Last. Bruce C. Robertson (University of Otago)H-Index: 23
view all 3 authors...
Examining the spatial genetic structure of cryptic species occupying challenging terrain can afford otherwise unattainable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes, such as population dynamics and dispersal patterns; information important for optimising conservation management. Using 13 microsatellite markers, we evaluated patterns of fine-scale gene flow and the spatial extent of genetic structuring of rock wren (Xenicus gilviventris), a threatened alpine passerine endemic to mountai...
4 CitationsSource
#1Kerry A. Weston (University of Otago)H-Index: 4
#2Bruce C. Robertson (University of Otago)H-Index: 23
Naturally subdivided populations such as those occupying high-altitude habitat patches of the ‘alpine archipelago’ can provide significant insight into past biogeographical change and serve as useful models for predicting future responses to anthropogenic climate change. Among New Zealand's alpine taxa, phylogenetic studies support two major radiations: the first correlating with geological forces (Pliocene uplift) and the second with climatic processes (Pleistocene glaciations). The rock wren (...
13 CitationsSource
#1Sascha Krenek (TUD: Dresden University of Technology)H-Index: 9
#2Thomas U. Berendonk (TUD: Dresden University of Technology)H-Index: 20
Last. Sergei I. Fokin (SPbU: Saint Petersburg State University)H-Index: 21
view all 3 authors...
Paramecium is one of the best known and most intensely studied ciliate genera. It currently comprises 18 morphospecies including the P. aurelia complex of 15 sibling species. Here, we describe the new morphospecies Paramecium buetschlii sp. nov. from a freshwater pool in Norway, featuring unusual combinations of morphological characters and a high genetic diversity relative to other congeners. Three further investigated Paramecium spp. from Germany, Hungary, and Brazil are treated as cryptic spe...
10 CitationsSource
i Acknowledgements ii Table of contents iii List of figures and tables vi List of tables vii 1 Chapter 1 1 General introduction and review of current literature 1 1.