Published on Aug 1, 1989in Psychological Reports1.023
· DOI :10.2466/pr0.1989.65.1.75
Elizabeth Aries17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Amherst College),
Kimberly Moorehead1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Amherst College)
Summary.-Ego-identity status was examined in 20 male and 20 female black junior and senior high school students. Ego-identity was assessed by a semistructured interview measuring questioning and commitment in the traditional areas of occupation, ideology (religion and politics), sexual-interpersonal attitudes and behavior, and the newly added area of ethnicity. The greatest questioning and commitment occurred in the area of ethnicity. Ethnicity was most predictive of over-all identity-status and was seen as most important to self-definition. The other area of central importance was occuparion. While the ideological and sexual-interpersonal areas have been found in previous research to have central importance for white adolescents, they were found in this sample of black adolescents to show rhe lowest concordance with overall identity and to be cited as having least importance in self-definition. The lowest amount of questioning and commitment occurred in these areas. The achievement of ego identity has been described by Erikson (1968) as the process of moving beyond childhood identifications, sorting through and synthesizing them to form a new and unique configuration. Identity development takes place throughout the life course but has its normative crisis at adolescence. At this stage commitments are made which provide a sense of continuity with the past yet construct a pathway toward the future. While ego-identity is a clinical construct that is difficult to delimit and define with precision, it has been successfully operationalized by Marcia (1966). Marcia (1966) developed a semistructured interview to place individuals in one of four identity-statuses or modes of deahng with the issue of identity. Marcia's Identity Status Interview has been widely used to study development of identity at adolescence, and it has been found to be both a reliable and vahd measure of ego-identity; see review by Marcia (1980). Marcia used two dmensions to assess an individual's identity status (1) the presence or absence of a "crisis" or period of questioning and exploration and (2) the presence or absence of a commitment to or investment in a course of action in the areas of occupation and ideology (politics and religion). Individuals are categorized as identity achieved if they have undergone a period of questioning and decision-making and have made occupational and ideological commitments. Individuals are categorized as identity foreclosed if they have made commitments to an occupation and ideology, but their values and goals are reflections of those endorsed by parents or parent surrogates and have never undergone a period of questioning. Indviduals
  • References (8)
  • Citations (74)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
427 Citations
2,708 Citations
1 Author (Erik H. Erikson)
11.6k Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Dan Bilsker (Vancouver General Hospital)H-Index: 3
#2D. Schiedel (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 1
Last. James E. Marcia (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 33
view all 3 authors...
In this study, sex differences in the Identity Status Interview (ISI) developed by Marcia (1980) were examined. The ISI was administered to 151 college students, 75 female and 76 male. It was found that status in the Ideology domain is most predictive of Identity Status for males, while status in the Sexual-Interpersonal domain is most predictive for females. No sex difference was found for the Occupation domain. An additional finding was that females rated the Sexual-Interpersonal domain as mor...
47 CitationsSource
#1Jomills Henry Braddock (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 18
#2James M. McPartland (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 18
Barriers to equal occupational opportunities for minorities are examined at three stages of the employment process: the job candidate stage, the job entry stage, and the job promotion stage. Using the authors' recent survey of 4078 employers covering a nationally representative sample of jobs, four types of exclusionary barriers are investigated: “segregated networks” at the candidate stage, “information bias” and “statistical discrimination” at the entry stage, and “closed internal markets” at ...
296 CitationsSource
Drawing on literary and psychological sources, Carol Gilligan documents the way in which theories of the life cycle, by taking for their model the lives of men, have failed to account for the experience of women. Arguing that this bias has promoted a concern with autonomy and achievement at the expense of attachment and intimacy, she suggests that systematic attention to women's lives, in both theory and research, will allow an integration of these concerns into a more balanced conception of hum...
295 CitationsSource
#1Gerald R. AdamsH-Index: 38
#2Judy A. SheaH-Index: 53
Last. Steven A. FitchH-Index: 5
view all 3 authors...
Four investigations were completed to develop a self-report measure of ego-identity status. Following James Marcia's definition of diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure, and identity achievement status, a series of Likert-type items were constructed and validated for use in the study of ego-identity formation. Convergent-divergent, concurrent, and predictive validity and test-retest reliability are documented in the reported data. Cross-sectional data suggest the measure will be sensitive to intrai...
180 CitationsSource
Fifty-five senior college women were given an ego identity status interview, two measures of field-independence (the Embedded Figures Test and figure drawings), and the Gough Femininity Scale. A significant relationship was found between ego identity status and field-independence, as measured by the EFT. Women in those identity statuses defined by occupational, ideological, and sexual commitment (Achievement and Foreclosure) were significantly more field-independent than women in those statuses ...
45 CitationsSource
#1Susi Schenkel (UB: University at Buffalo)H-Index: 2
#2James E. Marcia (UB: University at Buffalo)H-Index: 33
101 CitationsSource
4 modes of reacting to the late adolescent identity crisis were described, measured, and validated. Criteria for inclusion in 1 of 4 identity statuses were the presence of crisis and commitment in the areas of occupation and ideology. Statuses were determined for 86 college male Ss by means of individual interviews. Performance on a stressful concept-attainment task, patterns of goal setting, authoritarianism, and vulnerability to self-esteem change were dependent variables. Ss higher in ego ide...
3,076 CitationsSource
#1James Mark BaldwinH-Index: 33
Since it was first published, this famous study of the Black Problem in America has become a classic. Powerful, haunting and prophetic, it sounds a clarion warning to the world.
477 Citations
Cited By74
Nov 6, 2017 in CIKM (Conference on Information and Knowledge Management)
#1Junting Ye (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 6
#2Shuchu Han (Princeton University)H-Index: 6
Last. Steven Skiena (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 41
view all 7 authors...
Nationality identification unlocks important demographic information, with many applications in biomedical and sociological research. Existing name-based nationality classifiers use name substrings as features and are trained on small, unrepresentative sets of labeled names, typically extracted from Wikipedia. As a result, these methods achieve limited performance and cannot support fine-grained classification. We exploit the phenomena of homophily in communication patterns to learn name embeddi...
6 CitationsSource
#1Jennifer Feitosa (CUNY: City University of New York)H-Index: 5
#2Christina N. Lacerenza (Rice University)H-Index: 7
Last. Eduardo Salas (Rice University)H-Index: 106
view all 4 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Larissa Malone (KSU: Kent State University)H-Index: 1
#1Moin SyedH-Index: 30
#2Linda P. Juang (UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)H-Index: 22
The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney’s (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association betwe...
17 CitationsSource
1 CitationsSource
OF DISSERTATION PREDICTORS OF ACADEMIC SUCCESS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS African American students are graduating from high school and enrolling in higher educational institutions at greater rates than in previous years (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). Yet, they have not achieved the same level of academic success as their racial counterparts (American Council on Education, 2010; Ross, 2012). Ultimately, this disparity has resulted in only 17.7% of the African American populat...
#1Jayashree Mohanty Msw (NUS: National University of Singapore)H-Index: 7
Abstract Positive identity development during adolescence in general is a complex process and may pose additional challenges for adolescents adopted from a different culture. Using a web-based survey design with a sample of 100 internationally adopted Asian adolescent and young adults, the present study examined the mediating role of multiple identities (i.e., ethnic, adoptive and interpersonal ego identities) in explaining the relationship between ethnic and racial socializations, ethnic neighb...
28 CitationsSource
The aim of this cross- factorial- correlational study was to validate the "Ochse and Plug Erikson Scale-version of 7 factors" translated into Spanish into a sample of 1600 participants from the city of Bucaramanga (Colombia). Varimax rotation confirmed the seven basic subscales (76 items) and social desirability (17 items), showing consistent with the original instrument (Ochse & Plug, 1986). Item- test correlation was ranged (0.55
#1Kelly M. Lewis (GSU: Georgia State University)H-Index: 5
#2Emily Andrews (GSU: Georgia State University)H-Index: 2
Last. Kecia L. Ellick (GSU: Georgia State University)H-Index: 2
view all 6 authors...
Ethnic identity, the extent to which one defines one’s self as a member of a particular ethnic group, has been found to be an important predictor of African American adolescents’ psychological and behavioral well-being. This study experimentally examined the effects of a school-based emancipatory intervention on the ethnic identity of African American adolescents. Using a promising education framework drawn from elements of East African Ujamaa philosophy and practice, the intervention was provid...
5 CitationsSource