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Assimilation and contrast effects in reactions to communication and attitude change.

Published on Jan 1, 1957in The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology
· DOI :10.1037/h0048480
Carl I. Hovland36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
O. J. Harvey10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Muzafer Sherif34
Estimated H-index: 34
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Abstract
  • References (17)
  • Citations (488)
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In complex social communication the introduction of reference points may produce two opposing effects. Under some conditions the introduction of a reference point or stand beyond S's current position tends to move him toward the new position. Thus, telling him that experts think it will be at least 10 yr. before peaceful use of atomic power is feasible, may cause an individual to increase his own estimate from one of 5 yr. to one of 6 or 7 yr. Under other conditions the introduction of communica...
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"The present study has been concerned with the determinants of conformity to group norms. The variables under investigation were: (a) the extent of initial disagreement between the individual's and the group's opinion (known as 'distance'); (b) the number of occasions the individual was exposed to the group norm (known as 'exposures'); and (c) the size of the group . . ... In general, greater distance makes for greater conformity . . ... Conformity occurs within the first few exposures to the gr...
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BEFORE World War II, Richmond, California, was a settled little industrial center of about twenty-three thousand persons. During the war the shipbuilding industry alone gave employment, at its peak, to approximately ninety-three thousand men and women in the city. These workers were recruited from every state in the Union, especially from Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas. Some of them had previously come to California as "dustbowl refugees" and had followed the crops up and down the state for sever...
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The current research examined whether for a message that is based on the paradoxical thinking principles—i.e., providing extreme, exaggerated, or even absurd views, that are congruent with the held views of the message recipients—to be effective, it needs to hit a ‘sweet spot’ and lead to a contrast effect. That is, it moderates the view of the message's recipients. In the framework of attitudes toward African refugees and asylum seekers in Israel by Israeli Jews, we found that compared to more ...
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