Is visceral obesity the cause of the metabolic syndrome

Published on Jan 1, 2006in Annals of Medicine3.049
· DOI :10.1080/07853890500383895
Jean-Pierre Després118
Estimated H-index: 118
Despite the fact that controversy remains around the underlying pathophysiological processes leading to the development of the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia versus abdominal obesity), there is increased recognition that abdominal obesity is the most prevalent form of the metabolic syndrome. Although it has been well established that there is a greater prevalence of chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in obese patients than among normal weight individuals, obesity is a remarkably heterogeneous condition and not every obese patient is characterized by co‐morbidities. In this regard, body fat distribution, especially visceral adipose tissue accumulation, has been found to be a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome. Due to its anatomic location and peculiar metabolic, hyperlipolytic activity, the expanded visceral adipose depo...
  • References (99)
  • Citations (473)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
6,270 Citations
2,749 Citations
1,621 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
It has been known for over half a century that accumulation of fat in the upper body is associated with metabolic complications of obesity. The mechanism responsible for this association is widely believed to be insulin resistance, which is frequently present in individuals with upper-body obesity (1) and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk (2). The upper-body obesity phenotype is accompanied by increased free fatty acid (FFA) flux and concentration, whereas individuals with predomi...
83 CitationsSource
#2Paul ZimmetH-Index: 110
Last. Jonathan E. ShawH-Index: 96
view all 3 authors...
6,352 CitationsSource
#1Richard Kahn (American Diabetes Association)H-Index: 30
#2John B. Buse (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 97
Last. Michael P. Stern (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)H-Index: 80
view all 4 authors...
The term “metabolic syndrome” refers to a clustering of specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors whose underlying pathophysiology is thought to be related to insulin resistance. Since the term is widely used in research and clinical practice, we undertook an extensive review of the literature in relation to the syndrome’s definition, underlying pathogenesis, and association with CVD and to the goals and impact of treatment. While there is no question that certain CVD risk factors are p...
1,730 CitationsSource
#1Edwin A M Gale (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 51
192 CitationsSource
The present study examined the associations between a major adipokine, adiponectin, and adiposity indices as well as metabolic risk variables in a sample of 190 untreated asymptomatic men. Anthropometric measurements and a complete fasting plasma lipoprotein and lipid profile were obtained, and subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentrations were determined by an ELISA. Although all adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) distribution indices were negativel...
213 CitationsSource
#1Abhimanyu Garg (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 63
It is well recognized that persons with generalized obesity suffer from a high risk of insulin resistance and its metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, hepatic steatosis, hyperuricemia, and atherosclerotic vascular disease (1–3). However, whether accumulation of adipose tissue in a particular anatomical compartment (regional adiposity) confers an excess risk of insulin resistance and its ...
161 CitationsSource
#1Altan OnatH-Index: 41
#2Günsel Ş. AvcıH-Index: 3
Last. Vedat Sansoy (Istanbul University)H-Index: 24
view all 6 authors...
Measures of abdominal obesity assessed for visceral adiposity and relation to coronary risk
255 CitationsSource
#1Søren Nielsen (Mayo Clinic)H-Index: 60
#2Zeng Kui GuoH-Index: 1
Last. Michael Dennis JensenH-Index: 68
view all 5 authors...
Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obesit...
617 CitationsSource
Jean Vague from the University of Marseille was the first to foresee the importance of regional adipose tissue distribution when he suggested that a “male” pattern of body fat distribution, which he referred to as android obesity, was the form of obesity more likely to be accompanied by diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, as opposed to the typical, rather benign, “female” pattern of body fatness, which he described as gynoid obesity.1 In the early 80’s, the late Per Bjorntorp from the Uni...
79 CitationsSource
#1Tobias Pischon (Harvard University)H-Index: 68
#2Cynthia J. GirmanH-Index: 41
Last. Eric B. RimmH-Index: 169
view all 6 authors...
ContextAdiponectin, a recently discovered adipocyte-derived peptide, is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation and, purportedly, in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in humans.ObjectiveTo assess prospectively whether plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI).Design, Setting, and ParticipantsNested case-control study among 18 225 male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study a...
1,514 CitationsSource
Cited By473
#1Shota Yoshida (Osaka University)H-Index: 3
#2Hironori Nakagami (Osaka University)H-Index: 33
Last. Ryuichi Morishita (Osaka University)H-Index: 81
view all 11 authors...
Senotherapy targeting for senescent cells is designed to attenuate age-related dysfunction. Senescent T cells, defined as CD4+ CD44high CD62Llow PD-1+ CD153+ cells, accumulate in visceral adipose tissues (VAT) in obese individuals. Here, we show the long-lasting effect of using CD153 vaccination to remove senescent T cells from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. We administered a CD153 peptide-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate vaccine with Alhydrogel (CD153-Alum) or CpG oli...
#1Vineet SharmaH-Index: 15
#2Rohit SharmaH-Index: 4
Last. Natália MartinsH-Index: 15
view all 6 authors...
Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae)) is a traditional Indian medicinal herb, which is practiced to treat a wide range of health ailments, including neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, metabolic, kidney, and liver disorders. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive up-to-date report on its ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, and pharmacotherapeutic potential, while identifying potential areas for further research. To date, 145 constituents have been isolated from this ...
#1Zsolt Bagyura (Semmelweis University)H-Index: 6
#2Loretta Kiss (Semmelweis University)H-Index: 3
Last. Béla Merkely (Semmelweis University)H-Index: 46
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Background and Aims Visceral obesity is a marker of dysfunctional adipose tissue and ectopic fat infiltration. Many studies have shown that visceral fat dysfunction has a close relationship with cardiovascular disease. For a better identification of visceral adiposity dysfunction, the visceral adiposity index (VAI) is used. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is known to have a strong correlation with the total plaque burden therefore provides information about the severity of the coro...
#1Tian Tian (XMU: Xinjiang Medical University)H-Index: 2
#2Hualian Pei (XMU: Xinjiang Medical University)
Last. Dai Jianghong (XMU: Xinjiang Medical University)H-Index: 3
view all 8 authors...
Purpose: We aimed to assess if lipid accumulation product (LAP) could outperform body mass index (BMI) as a marker for diabetes diagnosis. Methods: We analyzed the results of a national physical examination project in Urumqi, China. This project was conducted in 442 community clinics in Urumqi from October 2016 to February 2017. Results: LAP was highly correlated with diabetes. The subjects with higher amounts of LAP had a higher risk of diabetes, and the prevalence of diabetes in the fourth qua...
#1Mark C. Thomas (University of Pittsburgh)
#2Thomas W. Kamarck (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 40
Last. Stephen B. Manuck (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 83
view all 6 authors...
Objective Evidence links trait hostility with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, but which hostility dimensions (e.g., expressive or cognitive hostility) relate to MetS are not well known. Further, there may be age and sex differences in the extent to which hostility dimensions relate to MetS. The present study evaluated associations between dimensions of hostility and the metabolic syndrome and its individual components as well as the mode...
#1Carlos Portugal-Nunes (University of Minho)H-Index: 4
#2Teresa Jesus Costa Castanho (University of Minho)H-Index: 5
Last. João Bessa (University of Minho)H-Index: 16
view all 10 authors...
The positive association between obesity and depressive mood in young middle-age individuals is a phenomenon with major clinical implications in public health. Interestingly, the trend of this association in older individuals is not clear, given the conflicting results of multiple studies. Since aging is accompanied by changes in body fat distribution, we questioned whether age is a modulator of such association. This study explores the role of age in the association between mood and general (bo...
#1Ebba BellerH-Index: 3
#2Roberto Lorbeer (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 6
Last. Sophia Stoecklein (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 2
view all 11 authors...
Objectives Prior studies relating body mass index (BMI) to brain volumes suggest an overall inverse association. However, BMI might not be an ideal marker, as it disregards different fat compartments, which carry different metabolic risks. Therefore, we analyzed MR-based fat depots and their association with gray matter (GM) volumes of brain structures, which show volumetric changes in neurodegenerative diseases.
#1Yi-Chien Lu (TMU: Taipei Medical University)H-Index: 1
#1Yi Chien Lu (TMU: Taipei Medical University)
Last. Wing P. Chan (TMU: Taipei Medical University)H-Index: 19
view all 4 authors...
Normal body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower risk for cardiometabolic diseases. However, there is a subset of individuals with BMI in this range who present with this metabolic abnormality (called metabolically unhealthy normal weight, MUHNW). Here we aimed to assess the adipose characteristics of people with MUHNW using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This study included 3259 people with normal BMI who underwent health examinations from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2016...
1 CitationsSource
#1Ki Woong Nam (Seoul National University Hospital)H-Index: 7
#2Hyuktae Kwon (Seoul National University Hospital)H-Index: 12
Last. Seung Sik Hwang (SNU: Seoul National University)H-Index: 31
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Although obesity has been proven as a risk factor of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, there have been few studies addressing the association between obesity and cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume with controversial findings. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between abdominal fat distribution and WMH volume in a neurologically healthy population. We performed an observational study in a consecutive series of subjects who were examined during voluntary hea...
#1Tsung-Lin Chiang (CCU: Chinese Culture University)
#2Chu Chen (NTNU: National Taiwan Normal University)
Last. Huey-June Wu (CCU: Chinese Culture University)
view all 5 authors...
To investigate the differences in body composition and metabolic syndrome (MS) under a daily 12,000-step strategy with or without moderate-intensity walking exercise in college students with obesity. Thirty-two adults with obesity (mean (s.d.) age: 19.72 (0.80) years; height: 165.38 (3.99) cm; wt: 83.31 (4.66) kg; body mass index: 30.38 (0.83) kg m− 2) were recruited and randomly assigned to the walking step goal group (WSG; achieving 12,000 steps per day), walking exercise group (WEG; achieving...