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Effect of duty cycle and applied current frequency on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating growth behavior

Published on Jul 1, 2013in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
· DOI :10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.03.041
Vahid Dehnavi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
Ben Li Luan4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
+ 2 AuthorsSohrab Rohani35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract Ceramic coatings were created on the surface of 6061 aluminum alloy using a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process employing a pulsed direct current (DC) power mode in an alkaline electrolyte. The effect of electrical parameters including frequency and duty cycle on the microdischarge behavior and coating growth was investigated at constant current. Surface features of coatings were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was employed to investigate elemental distribution on the coating surfaces and cross-sections. Applying lower duty cycles was found to result in increased breakdown voltages and microdischarges with higher spatial density and lower intensity. Further, applying a lower duty cycle was also found to promote the uniformity of silicon distribution in the coating. Based on these new findings, a new conceptual model is proposed to explain the concentration distribution of Si on the surface of coatings prepared at different duty cycles.
  • References (27)
  • Citations (92)
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References27
Newest
Published on Aug 1, 2012in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
Jeffrey M. Wheeler20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Cambridge),
James A. Curran13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Cambridge),
S. Shrestha1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract The microstructural and mechanical features of the two leading electrolytic coating methods, hard anodizing and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), on a 5052 aluminum alloy are investigated via extensive indentation and scratch testing along with accompanying characterization techniques. The hardness of the PEO coating (~ 12 GPa) was found to be approximately three times that of the hard anodized coating (~ 4 GPa). Indentation stress–strain curves were measured across the coating thick...
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 0.51
V. S. Rudnev15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Far Eastern Federal University),
M. A. Medkov6
Estimated H-index: 6
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
+ 3 AuthorsM. V. Belobeletskaya5
Estimated H-index: 5
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
Elemental composition and morphology of oxide coatings formed on stainless steel, nickel alloy (nonvalve metals), and titanium (valve metal) by plasma-electrolytic method combined with the extraction-pyrolytic technique are reported. It is shown that combination of these methods is promising for obtaining oxide coatings with a complex chemical composition and various physicochemical properties.
Published on Jul 1, 2011in Current Applied Physics 2.01
Kang Min Lee8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Hanyang University),
Young Gun Ko22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Yeungnam University),
Dong Hyuk Shin33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Hanyang University)
Abstract The influence of incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the coating structure and the corrosion response of a 7075 Al alloy coated by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was investigated. For this purpose, a series of PEO coatings were prepared on 7075 alloy specimens in a silicate electrolyte with MWCNTs, and the results were compared to those without MWCNTs. Microstructure observations revealed that when MWCNTs were added to the electrolyte, the pore size and fraction...
Published on Dec 1, 2010in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
R.H.U. Khan5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Birmingham),
A.L. Yerokhin16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Sheffield)
+ 2 AuthorsA. Matthews60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Sheffield)
Abstract Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a specialised but well-developed process which has found applications in aerospace, oil/gas, textile, chemical, electrical and biomedical sectors. A novel range of coatings having technologically attractive physical and chemical properties (e.g. wear- and corrosion-resistance) can be produced by suitable control of the electrolyte as well as electrical parameters of the PEO process. Oxide ceramic films, 3 to 40 μm thick, were produced on 6082 alumi...
Published on Aug 1, 2010in Journal of Alloys and Compounds 4.17
Zhijiang Wang18
Estimated H-index: 18
(HIT: Harbin Institute of Technology),
Lina Wu5
Estimated H-index: 5
(HIT: Harbin Institute of Technology)
+ 2 AuthorsZhaohua Jiang29
Estimated H-index: 29
(HIT: Harbin Institute of Technology)
Abstract The composition of electrolyte plays a key role in the structure and properties of the synthesized ceramic coating by microarc oxidation (MAO) process. In the present study, F − ion, the smallest size among the negative ions, is chosen as the additive. The effects of F − ion on the structure and properties of the formed ceramic coating have been investigated in detail. Inspection of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggests that the addition of fluoride...
Published on Jul 1, 2010in Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology
R.O. Hussein7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Derek O. Northwood37
Estimated H-index: 37
,
Xueyuan Nie30
Estimated H-index: 30
In this study, aluminum oxide was deposited on an Al alloy substrate to produce hard ceramic coatings using a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process working at atmospheric pressure. The process utilizes dc and unipolar pulsed dc in the frequency range 0.2–20 kHz. Optical emission spectroscopy was employed to study the species and electron temperature of the plasma. The morphology and microstructure of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that in th...
Published on Mar 17, 2010in Journal of Physics D 2.83
R O Hussein1
Estimated H-index: 1
(U of W: University of Windsor),
Xueyuan Nie30
Estimated H-index: 30
(U of W: University of Windsor)
+ 2 AuthorsA. Matthews60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Sheffield)
In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce oxide coatings on commercially pure aluminium (1100 alloy) at a pulsed dc power mode. The effects of process parameters (i.e. current density and treatment time) on the plasma discharge behaviour during the PEO treatment were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible and near ultraviolet (NUV) band (285?800?nm). The elements present in the plasma were identified. Stark shifts of spectral ...
Published on Aug 1, 2009in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
C.S. Dunleavy5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Cambridge),
Igor O. Golosnoy19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Southampton)
+ 1 AuthorsT.W. Clyne43
Estimated H-index: 43
(University of Cambridge)
A study has been made of the electrical characteristics and optical emission spectra exhibited when discharge events take place during plasma electrolytic oxidation processing. Both conventional and small area experimental arrangements have been employed, allowing detailed measurement of durations, and temporal distributions, as well as such characteristics as charge transfer, and power. Individual discharges are of short duration, typically tens to hundreds of microseconds, but there is a stron...
Published on Jul 1, 2009in Corrosion Science 6.36
S. Moon1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Y. Jeong1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract The generation mechanism of microdischarges during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminium was investigated at constant current densities in aqueous alkaline solutions. Microdischarges were generated only in weakly alkaline solutions under high applied voltages. The breakdown voltage of the anodic oxide film was not dependent on the applied anodic current density while it was strongly dependent on the OH − concentration in the solution. The size and density of microdischarges b...
Published on May 1, 2009in Transactions of The Institute of Metal Finishing 0.81
Frank C. Walsh65
Estimated H-index: 65
,
C.T.J. Low21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 4 AuthorsA. Ryder1
Estimated H-index: 1
The introduction of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) as a surface finishing technique has enabled a range of hard, dense oxide coatings to be produced on aluminium, magnesium, titanium and other lightweight alloy substrates. As with all surface coating technologies, successful development of PEO coatings requires adequate attention to substrate pretreatment together with careful control of electrolyte conditions and process variables. The principles and applications of the PEO coating process...
Cited By92
Newest
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Materials & Design 5.77
Julien Martin7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Lorraine),
Alexandre Nomine6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Lorraine)
+ 5 AuthorsGérard Henrion13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Lorraine)
Abstract This paper demonstrates the possibility of producing a lamellar ceramic nanocomposite at the top-most surface of oxide coatings grown with the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation process (PEO). PEO was conducted on aluminium in a silicate-rich electrolyte under the so-called “soft” regime. Nanoscale characterisation showed that the transition from the “arcs” to the “soft” regime was concomitant with the gradual formation of a 1:1 mullite/alumina lamellar nanocomposite (≈120 nm thick) that fil...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Materials & Design 5.77
Julien Martin7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Lorraine),
J. Martin + 4 AuthorsT. Grosdidier
Abstract A Gd,Y rare-earth containing magnesium alloy (content in weight %, 10 Gd, 3 Y, 0.4 Zr and Mg as balance) is PEO processed for three different metallurgical states: (i) as-extruded, (ii) T4 solution (2 h at 500 °C) and (iii) T6 peak-aged precipitation (2 h at 500 °C followed by 14 h at 225 °C). The thickest coating combined with the lowest porosity is achieved for the softest solid solution T4 treated substrate resulting in the development of a harder oxide coating. The presence of Mg(Gd...
Published on May 1, 2019in Applied Surface Science 5.16
Golsa Mortazavi2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Golsa Mortazavi (UTA: University of Texas at Arlington)+ 0 AuthorsE. I. Meletis39
Estimated H-index: 39
Abstract A critical parameter in Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is the applied current composed of electronic current caused by sparking and ionic current caused by diffusion of electrolyte ions into the oxide. A wide spectrum of current densities was applied on pure titanium to investigate the PEO mechanism. The growth process and oxide characteristics were investigated by studying the ionic/electronic current contributions during the PEO stages. The contribution of electronic current was ...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
V. Ntomprougkidis (University of Lorraine), Julien Martin7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Lorraine)
+ 1 AuthorsGérard Henrion13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Lorraine)
Abstract Oxide coatings were produced on a 2024 aluminium alloy using a pulsed bipolar current plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process in an alkaline electrolyte. The use of sequences including various current waveforms during the same treatment was investigated, mainly by applying various combinations of two different anodic to cathodic charge quantity ratio (RCQ = 0.9 and 6.0). The morphology of the produced PEO coatings was observed using scanning electron microscopy while the behaviour o...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
Hongjian Huang (Akita Prefectural University), Jianhui Qiu (Akita Prefectural University)+ 2 AuthorsXiaowei Wei (Xihua University)
Abstract Micro arcs on metal surface immersed in alkaline electrolyte have been studied by many works, but that in acidic electrolyte are rarely reported. In this work, anodizing of aluminum was carried out in etidronic acid (HEDP) at high current density to investigate the formation behavior of coating. SEM images indicate that the burning of initial film is actually caused by local oxide cracking due to the increase of compressive stress. The soft spark would appear when voltage reached 300 V,...
Published on Jul 3, 2019in Surface Engineering 2.23
Yujian Zhang16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Zhejiang University of Technology),
Yongnan Chen3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 1 AuthorsY. W. Zhao2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Zhejiang University of Technology)
ABSTRACTTiO2 films were formed in phosphate-based electrolyte on pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology. After that, they were impregnated with Dy3+-containing electrolyte to produce TiO2:Dy3+ composite films. Effects of the duty cycle, impregnation time and concentration on physical and chemical properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Dy3+ composite films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray pho...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Applied Surface Science 5.16
Babak Haghighat-Shishavan (SUT: Sahand University of Technology), Rasoul Azari-Khosrowshahi (SUT: Sahand University of Technology)+ 2 AuthorsN. Parvini-Ahmadi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(SUT: Sahand University of Technology)
Abstract An alumina coating with a thickness of 20–50 μm was deposited by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on an AA 7075 Al alloy in an alkali-aluminate electrolyte using a 5 kW DC power supply. After the formation of the coating, the effects of current density, electrolyte concentration, and process time on the coating characteristics were investigated comprehensively. In order to achieve improved tribological and corrosion properties, the prepared samples were evaluated by means of various ...
Published on May 15, 2019in Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 1.48
Zhong Yang1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Rui-qiang Wang3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 6 AuthorsDejiu Shen7
Estimated H-index: 7
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were fabricated on the aluminum in silicate electrolyte. Microstructures and elemental compositions of these PEO coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Corrosion resistances of the coated samples were evaluated using the measurements of open-circuit potential (OCP), repetitive polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The r...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
Xiaowei Wei (Xihua University), Hongjian Huang (Akita Prefectural University)+ 2 AuthorsJianhui Qiu (Akita Prefectural University)
Abstract Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) conducted on aluminum surface with special geometries has rarely been studied, while the MAO coatings may show some differences due to the surface states. Herein, a honeycomb pretreatment was applied before the MAO process on aluminum. The influence of honeycomb pretreatment on the discharge, voltage, microstructure, phase composition, thickness, hardness, and wear resistance of the coatings was studied by using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction a...