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IQ and Schizophrenia in a Swedish National Sample: Their Causal Relationship and the Interaction of IQ With Genetic Risk

Published on Mar 1, 2015in American Journal of Psychiatry13.65
· DOI :10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14040516
Kenneth S. Kendler152
Estimated H-index: 152
,
Henrik Ohlsson21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 1 AuthorsKristina Sundquist47
Estimated H-index: 47
Cite
Abstract
Objective:The authors sought to clarify the relationship between IQ and subsequent risk for schizophrenia.Method:IQ was assessed at ages 18–20 in 1,204,983 Swedish males born between 1951 and 1975. Schizophrenia was assessed by hospital diagnosis through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate future risk for schizophrenia in individuals as a function of their IQ score, and then stratified models using pairs of relatives were used to adjust for familial cluster. Finally, regression models were used to examine the interaction between IQ and genetic liability on risk for schizophrenia.Results:IQ had a monotonic relationship with schizophrenia risk across the IQ range, with a mean increase in risk of 3.8% per 1-point decrease in IQ; this association was stronger in the lower than the higher IQ range. Co-relative control analyses showed a similar association between IQ and schizophrenia in the general population and in cousin, half-sibling, and full-sibling pairs. A robust interaction w...
  • References (25)
  • Citations (42)
Cite
References25
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2014in Journal of Psychiatric Research3.92
Hannah Dickson8
Estimated H-index: 8
('KCL': King's College London),
Alexis E. Cullen13
Estimated H-index: 13
('KCL': King's College London)
+ 4 AuthorsKristin R. Laurens32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
Adults with schizophrenia present cognitive impairments, as do individuals at ultra-high risk for the disorder, youth with relatives with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and children with antecedents of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if impairments in childhood differed depending on the definition of risk and/or on the degree of relatedness to an affected individual, and if impairments were explained by IQ. Four groups of children aged 9–12 years were studied: (1) 13 child...
Published on Feb 1, 2014in Nature43.07
Menachem Fromer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Andrew Pocklington21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 29 AuthorsDouglas M. Ruderfer44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Cardiff University)
Inherited alleles account for most of the genetic risk for schizophrenia. However, new (de novo) mutations, in the form of large chromosomal copy number changes, occur in a small fraction of cases and disproportionally disrupt genes encoding postsynaptic proteins. Here we show that small de novo mutations, affecting one or a few nucleotides, are overrepresented among glutamatergic postsynaptic proteins comprising activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and N-methyl-d-aspartate r...
Published on May 1, 2012in Archives of General Psychiatry
Timothy M Fowler4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Birmingham),
Stanley Zammit47
Estimated H-index: 47
(UoB: University of Bristol)
+ 1 AuthorsFinn Rasmussen57
Estimated H-index: 57
Context: The strong association between lower IQ and risk for psychosis has led to the suggestion that the search for genes influencing cognition may provide a useful strategy for examining the genetic origins of psychosis. However, research in this area has generally used designs in which twin pairs are selected by case status and with assessment of IQ after the onset of psychosis rather than longitudinal population-based samples. Objective: To examine the relationship and shared genetic origin...
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Schizophrenia Research4.57
Golam M. Khandaker15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Cambridge),
Jennifer H. Barnett22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Cambridge)
+ 1 AuthorsPeter B. Jones89
Estimated H-index: 89
(University of Cambridge)
Objective A premorbid IQ deficit supports a developmental dimension to schizophrenia and its cognitive aspects that are crucial to functional outcome. Better characterisation of the association between premorbid IQ and the disorder may provide further insight into its origin and etiology. We aimed to quantify premorbid cognitive function in schizophrenia through systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal, population-based studies, and to characterize the risk of schizophrenia across the...
Published on Sep 1, 2010in British Journal of Psychiatry7.23
Kenneth S. Kendler152
Estimated H-index: 152
,
Charles O. Gardner42
Estimated H-index: 42
In this issue, Zammit et al explore how five dichotomised risk factors work together to predict risk for non-affective psychosis in a large Swedish cohort. In this editorial, we review these findings, and comment on both the nature of additive v . multiplicative models and the meaning of statistical interactions.
Published on Sep 1, 2009in Archives of General Psychiatry
Audrey Guilmatre3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Christèle Dubourg32
Estimated H-index: 32
+ 25 AuthorsFrédérique Bonnet-Brilhault18
Estimated H-index: 18
CONTEXT: Results of comparative genomic hybridization studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the cause of mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: To provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent or overlapping CNVs in 3 different groups of cases compared with healthy control subjects and to assess whether each CNV is present in more than 1 clinical category. DESIGN: Case-control...
Published on Mar 1, 2009in Genes, Brain and Behavior3.16
Michelle Luciano41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh),
Fabio Miyajima14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Manchester)
+ 13 AuthorsNeil Pendleton48
Estimated H-index: 48
(University of Manchester)
The association between DTNBP1 genotype and cognitive abilities was investigated in three population samples (1054 Scottish, 1806 Australian and 745 English) of varying age. There was evidence in each of the cohorts for association (P < 0.05) to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes previously shown to relate to cognition. By comparison with previous findings, these associations included measures of memory, and there was at best equivocal evidence of association with general cogn...
Published on Dec 1, 2008in Psychological Medicine5.64
Barry John Milne31
Estimated H-index: 31
('KCL': King's College London),
Terrie E. Moffitt157
Estimated H-index: 157
('KCL': King's College London)
+ 5 AuthorsAvshalom Caspi146
Estimated H-index: 146
('KCL': King's College London)
Background. There is increased interest in assessing the family history of psychiatric disorders for both genetic research and public health screening. It is unclear how best to combine family history reports into an overall score. We compare the predictive validity of different family history scores. Method. Probands from the Dunedin Study (n=981, 51% male) had their family history assessed for nine different conditions. We computed four family history scores for each disorder: (1) a simple dic...
Published on May 1, 2008in American Journal of Psychiatry13.65
Kristen A. Woodberry15
Estimated H-index: 15
,
Anthony J. Giuliano18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Larry J. Seidman104
Estimated H-index: 104
Objective: Over the past three decades, there have been significant changes in the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia as well as changes in measurement of IQ. The last quantitative review of the literature on premorbid IQ in schizophrenia was published more than two decades ago. Since that time, there have been many published studies of data sets pertaining to this issue. The purpose of the present review was to provide an updated meta-analysis of premorbid IQ in individuals who later develop...
Published on Apr 1, 2008in Archives of General Psychiatry
Timothea Toulopoulou37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Harvard University),
Marco Picchioni34
Estimated H-index: 34
('KCL': King's College London)
+ 4 AuthorsRobin M. Murrayand143
Estimated H-index: 143
('KCL': King's College London)
Context The use of endophenotypes, biological traits that increase the liability to a disorder, represents one strategy to facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes for complex behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia. Establishing that a candidate trait is both heritable and linked genetically to schizophrenia is integral to its validity as an endophenotypic marker. Neurocognitive deficits are among the most promising indicators of increased risk for schizophrenia; however, it is not c...
Cited By42
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Biological Psychiatry11.50
Sonja de Zwarte3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UU: Utrecht University),
Rachel M. Brouwer31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 80 AuthorsAurora Bonvino2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Bari)
Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. First-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (FDRs-SZ) show similar brain abnormalities to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Imaging findings in bipolar disorder first-degree relatives (FDRs-BD) have been inconsistent in the past, but recent studies report regionally greater volumes compared to controls. Methods Here, we meta-analyzed global a...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Schizophrenia Research4.57
Jan Stochl17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Cambridge),
Anjalene Whittier2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Cambridge)
+ 5 AuthorsPeter B. Jones89
Estimated H-index: 89
(University of Cambridge)
Abstract We investigated relationships between early developmental milestones, schizophrenia incidence and variability in its age at onset. We hypothesized that the period of risk for schizophrenia would be longer for those with later development. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was followed until 47 years of age, and those members diagnosed with schizophrenia or any other non-affective psychoses identified. Latent profile analysis was used to classify people into homogenous classes with ...
Published on Apr 2, 2019in Frontiers in Psychiatry3.16
Josef Parnas54
Estimated H-index: 54
,
Karl Erik Sandsten + 1 AuthorsJulie Nordgaard8
Estimated H-index: 8
A potential link between creativity and mental illness has been a longstanding topic for human studies and empirical research. The major problem is defining creativity and establishing its measurable indicators. A few high-quality epidemiological studies have been undertaken and point to a link between creativity and vulnerability to mental illness. Demonstrating such a shared vulnerability could expand our understanding of mental illnesses and open up new avenues of empirical research. In this ...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Fortschritte Der Neurologie Psychiatrie0.64
Lisa Löhrs1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Alkomiet Hasan29
Estimated H-index: 29
Gemas dem derzeitigen Wissen entsteht eine Schizophrenie multifaktoriell – und zwar durch kumulative Wirkung einzelner, fur sich unterschwelliger Risikofaktoren. Diese Faktoren (u. a. genetische, psychosoziale, umweltbedingte, pra- und peripartale) ziehen strukturelle Gehirnveranderungen und Veranderungen einzelner Neurotransmittersysteme nach sich, die schlieslich zum Vollbild der Schizophrenie fuhren.
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Annales médico-psychologiques0.21
Pierrette Estingoy1
Estimated H-index: 1
Resume L’etrange rapport qui semble se nouer entre l’expression du genie et de la folie chez certains grands hommes, tout comme chez les malades, a marque les esprits a travers notre histoire. De nombreuses hypotheses vont dans le sens d’un veritable lien de parente, ou au moins de relative similitude, entre les processus mentaux pouvant conduire a l’emergence d’une psychose comme a la creativite. Or, si generalement les observations ne confirment pas l’avantage en matiere de creativite chez les...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in BJPsych Advances
Hugh Middleton17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
Joanna Moncrieff31
Estimated H-index: 31
Critical psychiatry has often been confused with what is widely known as ‘anti-psychiatry’. In this article the distinction is clarified and the particular contribution critical psychiatry makes is outlined. That contribution is constructive criticism: of the relationship between medicine and mental health practice, of the way drug and psychotherapeutic treatments for mental health difficulties might be better understood. These have implications for everyday clinical practice and there is much t...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Psychological Medicine5.64
Pamela Jacobsen6
Estimated H-index: 6
('KCL': King's College London),
Emmanuelle Peters38
Estimated H-index: 38
('KCL': King's College London)
+ 3 AuthorsPaul Chadwick25
Estimated H-index: 25
('KCL': King's College London)
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Håkan Karlsson30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Håkan Karlsson1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Christina Dalman35
Estimated H-index: 35