Match!

Principles of cognitive science in education: The effects of generation, errors, and feedback

Published on Apr 1, 2007in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review3.704
· DOI :10.3758/BF03194056
J. Metcalfe-eich51
Estimated H-index: 51
(Columbia University),
Nate Kornell30
Estimated H-index: 30
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
Abstract
Principles of cognitive science hold the promise of helping children to study more effectively, yet they do not always make successful transitions from the laboratory to applied settings and have rarely been tested in such settings. For example, self-generation of answers to questions should help children to remember. But what if children cannot generate anything? And what if they make an error? Do these deviations from the laboratory norm of perfect generation hurt, and, if so, do they hurt enough that one should, in practice, spurn generation? Can feedback compensate, or are errors catastrophic? The studies reviewed here address three interlocking questions in an effort to better implement a computer-based study program to help children learn: (1) Does generation help? (2) Do errors hurt if they are corrected? And (3) what is the effect of feedback? The answers to these questions are: Yes, generation helps; no, surprisingly, errors that are corrected do not hurt; and, finally, feedback is beneficial in verbal learning. These answers may help put cognitive scientists in a better position to put their well-established principles in the service of children’s learning.
  • References (25)
  • Citations (83)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1,244 Citations
1,187 Citations
243 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References25
Newest
#1J. Metcalfe-eich (Columbia University)H-Index: 51
#2Nate Kornell (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 30
Last. Lisa K. Son (Barnard College)H-Index: 16
view all 3 authors...
In three experiments, learning performance in a 6- or 7-week cognitive-science based computer-study programme was compared to equal time spent self-studying on paper. The first two experiments were conducted with grade 6 and 7 children in a high risk educational setting, the third with Columbia University undergraduates. The principles the programme implemented included (1) deep, meaningful, elaborative, multimodal processing, (2) transfer-appropriate processing, (3) self-generation and multiple...
59 CitationsSource
#1Nate Kornell (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 30
#2Robert A. Bjork (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 62
Self-regulated study involves many decisions, some of which people make confidently and easily (if not always optimally) and others of which are involved and difficult. Good study decisions rest on accurate monitoring of ongoing learning, a realistic mental model of how learning happens, and appropriate use of study strategies. We review our research on the decisions people make, for better or worse, when deciding what to study, how long to study, and how to study.
219 CitationsSource
#1Aaron S. Benjamin (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 26
#2Randy D. Bird (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 1
Rememberers play an active role in learning, not only by committing material more or less faithfully to memory, but also by selecting judicious study strategies (or not). In three experiments, subjects chose whether to mass or space the second presentation of to-be-learned paired-associate terms that were either normatively difficult or easy to remember, under the constraint that subjects needed to space exactly half of the items (and mass the other half). In contrast with recent findings that i...
61 CitationsSource
#1Brady Butterfield (Columbia University)H-Index: 7
#2J. Metcalfe-eich (Columbia University)H-Index: 51
Most theories predict that when people indicate that they are highly confident they are producing their strongest responses. Hence, if such a high confidence response is in error it should be overwritten only with great difficulty. In contrast to this prediction, we have found that people easily correct erroneous responses to general information questions endorsed as correct with high-confidence, so long as the correct answer is given as feedback. Three potential explanations for this unexpected...
80 CitationsSource
#1Henry L. Roediger (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 86
#2Jeffrey D. Karpicke (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 27
Taking a memory test not only assesses what one knows, but also enhances later retention, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. We studied this effect with educationally relevant materials and investigated whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material. In two experiments, students studied prose passages and took one or three immediate free-recall tests, without feedback, or restudied the material the same number of times as the students who ...
1,244 CitationsSource
7 Citations
#1Nicholas J. Cepeda (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 22
#2Harold Pashler (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 69
Last. Doug Rohrer (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 28
view all 5 authors...
The authors performed a meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles. Effects of spacing (consecutive massed presentations vs. spaced learning episodes) and lag (less spaced vs. more spaced learning episodes) were examined, as were expanding interstudy interval (ISI) effects. Analyses suggest that IS...
786 CitationsSource
#1John DunloskyH-Index: 52
#2Christopher HertzogH-Index: 61
Last. Keith W. ThiedeH-Index: 4
view all 4 authors...
64 Citations
#1Harold Pashler (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 69
#2Nicholas J. Cepeda (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 22
Last. Doug Rohrer (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 28
view all 4 authors...
The question of what form of feedback best promotes associative learning and retention is of obvious practical import. However, the literature on feedback is confusing, with some researchers suggesting that although feedback may enhance performance during learning, it does so at the expense of later retention. To shed further light on this issue, subjects (N = 258) learned Luganda–English word pairs. After 2 initial exposures to the materials, subjects were tested on each item several times, wit...
243 CitationsSource
#2Elizabeth Ligon Bjork (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 29
When presented with items that must be generated versus read at encoding, individuals typically remember better those items that they generated versus those that they only read. We examined whether— given the opportunity to experience such differential memorial consequences of generating versus reading—participants might change how they processed future to-be-read information. In a first set of two experiments, participants were able to profit from such an experience to the extent that a generat...
79 CitationsSource
Cited By83
Newest
#1Rui Yang (AIR: American Institutes for Research)H-Index: 3
#2Andrew C. Porter (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 23
Last. Laura M. Desimone (UD: University of Delaware)H-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
Source
#1Anna J. Lou (Harvard University)
#2Susanne M. Jaeggi (UCI: University of California, Irvine)H-Index: 31
Source
Access to definitions facilitates the learning of word meanings when novel words are encountered in reading. However, the memorial costs and benefits of inferring word meanings from context, compared to seeing definitions of unfamiliar words before reading, are not yet well understood. We conducted two experiments with adult L1 (English) and L2 (Chinese) readers to investigate whether the development of declarative and nondeclarative word knowledge benefits more when definitions are supplied bef...
Source
This article discusses the counterpart of interactive machine learning, i.e., human learning while being in the loop in a human-machine collaboration. For such cases we propose the use of a Contradiction Matrix to assess the overlap and the contradictions of human and machine predictions. We show in a small-scaled user study with experts in the area of pneumology (1) that machine-learning based systems can classify X-rays with respect to diseases with a meaningful accuracy, (2) humans partly use...
Source
Source
AbstractNow, more than ever, American students at all grade levels face intense pressure to increase academic performance—including kindergarteners. Given that prior research has well established that mistakes and corrective feedback are key elements of the learning endeavor, it is critical to closely examine teachers’ mistake-related experiences within the current educational context. The author reports on an interview study of 25 public school kindergarten teachers, who articulate in their own...
Source
#1Qiang Hao (WWU: Western Washington University)H-Index: 4
#2Jack P. Wilson (WWU: Western Washington University)
Last. David H. Smith (WWU: Western Washington University)
view all 6 authors...
This study investigated the essential of meaningful automated feedback for programming assignments. Three different types of feedback were tested, including (a) What's wrong - what test cases were testing and which failed, (b) Gap - comparisons between expected and actual outputs, and (c) Hint - hints on how to fix problems if test cases failed. 46 students taking a CS2 participated in this study. They were divided into three groups, and the feedback configurations for each group were different:...
Source
#1Sarah A. Zipp (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 1
#2Scotty D. Craig (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 19
Biases influence the decisions people make in everyday life, even if they are unaware of it. The current study investigates the extent bias behavior transfers into social interactions in virtual worlds by investigating the effect of aversive racism on helping behaviors and learning within a virtual world for medical triage training. In a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed design, two between subjects variables, participant skin tone (light, dark) and avatar skin tone (light, dark), and one within subjects variable...
Source
#1Irina Kaiser (University of Kassel)H-Index: 1
#2Jürgen Mayer (University of Kassel)H-Index: 6
Last. Dumitru Malai (University of Kassel)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Self-generation of knowledge can activate deeper cognitive processing and improve long-term retention compared to the passive reception of information. It plays a distinctive role within the concept of inquiry-based learning, which is an activity-oriented, student-centered collaborative learning approach in which students become actively involved in knowledge construction. This approach allows students to not only acquire content knowledge, but also an understanding of investigative procedures/i...
3 CitationsSource
#1Shirley NäslundH-Index: 2
Syftet med denna studie ar att undersoka hur en larare organiserar ett samtal om ordsammansattning i en forskoleklass dar lejonparten av eleverna har svenska som andrasprak. Narmare bestamt underso ...
Source