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Enteric Flora in Health and Disease

Published on Jan 1, 2006in Digestion3.029
· DOI :10.1159/000089775
Francisco Guarner58
Estimated H-index: 58
Abstract
The human gut is the natural habitat for a large and dynamic bacterial community. Recently developed molecular biology tools suggest that a substantial part of these bacterial populations are still to
  • References (58)
  • Citations (206)
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References58
Newest
: Tolerance to food antigens induced via the gut (“oral tolerance”) appears to be a rather robust adaptive immune mechanism. However, the neonatal period is particularly critical in terms of mucosal defense, with regard to infections and priming for allergic disease. This is so because the intestinal barrier function provided by secretory antibodies, as well as the immunoregulatory network, is poorly developed for a variable period after birth. Notably, the postnatal development of mucosal immun...
185 CitationsSource
#1Nada RayesH-Index: 28
#2Daniel SeehoferH-Index: 34
Last. Peter NeuhausH-Index: 74
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Bacterial infections frequently occur early after liver transplantation. We recently reported significant progress with a synbiotic composition, consisting of one lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and one fiber, which reduced the infection rate from 48% (with selective bowel decontamination) to 13%. Now, our aim is to study if a combination of different LAB and fibers would further improve outcome. A prospective randomized double-blind trial was undertaken in 66 liver transplant recipients. All patient...
339 CitationsSource
#1Henry C. Lin (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 1
ContextIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects 11% to 14% of the population, is a puzzling condition with multiple models of pathophysiology including altered motility, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal brain-gut interaction, autonomic dysfunction, and immune activation. Although no conceptual framework accounts for all the symptoms and observations in IBS, a unifying explanation may exist since 92% of these patients share the symptom of bloating regardless of their predominant complaint...
327 CitationsSource
#1John H. Cummings (Dund.: University of Dundee)H-Index: 90
#2Jean-Michel AntoineH-Index: 10
Last. Bernhard WatzlH-Index: 38
view all 13 authors...
Background The gut and immune system form a complex integrated structure that has evolved to provide effective digestion and defence against ingested toxins and pathogenic bacteria. However, great variation exists in what is considered normal healthy gut and immune function. Thus, whilst it is possible to measure many aspects of digestion and immunity, it is more difficult to interpret the benefits to individuals of variation within what is considered to be a normal range. Nevertheless, it is im...
231 CitationsSource
#1Ryan B. Sartor (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 78
Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis are caused by overly aggressive immune responses to a subset of commensal (nonpathogenic) enteric bacteria in genetically predisposed individuals. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the relative balance of aggressive and protective bacterial species is altered in these disorders. Antibiotics can selectively decrease tissue invasion and eliminate aggressive bacterial species or globally decrease luminal and mucosal bacterial concentra...
826 CitationsSource
#1Ryan B. Sartor (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 78
42 CitationsSource
The intestine is an extremely complex living system that participates in the protection of the host through a strong defense against aggressions from the external environment. This defensive task is based on 3 constituents that are in permanent contact and dialog with each other: the microflora, mucosal barrier, and local immune system. We review herein current knowledge about these important functions. The gut microflora play a major role against exogenous bacteria through colonization resistan...
276 CitationsSource
#1Monica CarolH-Index: 4
#2Natalia BorruelH-Index: 18
Last. Juan R. MalageladaH-Index: 59
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3 CitationsSource
#1Natalia Borruel (Autonomous University of Barcelona)H-Index: 18
#2F. Casellas (Autonomous University of Barcelona)H-Index: 13
Last. Juan R. Malagelada (Autonomous University of Barcelona)H-Index: 59
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Abstract Objective The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host–bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production. Methods Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn’s disease. Mucosal explants were cultured...
122 CitationsSource
2,172 CitationsSource
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#1Karin Schwaiger (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 15
#2Julia Storch (TUM: Technische Universität München)
Last. Johann Bauer (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 39
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AIMS: The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves is largely unexplored even if it is of great significance for their future health. Therefore, the aim of the study was to gain a better insight into the development dynamics of certain bacterial groups during the first week of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Faecal samples of healthy Simmental calves (dual-purpose breed; n = 80), bottle fed and raised in a dairy farm were taken immediately after birth and at 6/12/24/48/72/168 h (h) after birth. Sample...
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#2Hecun ZouH-Index: 4
Last. Zhi-Rong TanH-Index: 25
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AbstractThe gastrointestinal microbiota and host co-evolve into a complex ‘super-organism,’ and this relationship plays a vital role in many physiological processes, such as drug metabolism. Ginsen...
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Last. Mariana Martins DrumondH-Index: 2
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#1Rocio MoronH-Index: 1
#2Julio GálvezH-Index: 46
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Critically ill patients have an alteration in the microbiome in which it becomes a disease-promoting pathobiome. It is characterized by lower bacterial diversity, loss of commensal phyla, like Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and a domination of pathogens belonging to the Proteobacteria phylum. Although these alterations are multicausal, many of the treatments administered to these patients, like antibiotics, play a significant role. Critically ill patients also have a hyperpermeable gut barrier an...
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The human organism coexists with its microbiota in a symbiotic relationship. These polymicrobial communities are involved in many crucial functions, such as immunity, protection against pathogens, and metabolism of dietary compounds, thus maintaining homeostasis. The oral cavity and the colon, although distant anatomic regions, are both highly colonized by distinct microbiotas. However, studies indicate that oral bacteria are able to disseminate into the colon. This is mostly evident in conditio...
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Last. Ioana Daniela DulamaH-Index: 4
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AbstractDiet is an important regulator of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies result in less diverse, dysbiotic microbial communities and increased susceptibility ...
2 CitationsSource
#2Yutaka TadanoH-Index: 5
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#1Chubin Qin (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 1
#2Li Gong (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 3
Last. Weifen Li (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 13
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Abstract The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal overall health and productiveness. Balancing host gut microbiota by probiotics has been documented. Our previous study showed that Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) significantly improve growth performance and modulate the intestinal histomorphology in broilers. To increase the knowledge regarding Sb and Bs, this study investigated the effects of these 2 probiotic strains on the gut microbiota in broilers. Thre...
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