Enteric Flora in Health and Disease

Published on Jan 1, 2006in Digestion3.029
· DOI :10.1159/000089775
Francisco Guarner58
Estimated H-index: 58
The human gut is the natural habitat for a large and dynamic bacterial community. Recently developed molecular biology tools suggest that a substantial part of these bacterial populations are still to
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ContextIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects 11% to 14% of the population, is a puzzling condition with multiple models of pathophysiology including altered motility, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal brain-gut interaction, autonomic dysfunction, and immune activation. Although no conceptual framework accounts for all the symptoms and observations in IBS, a unifying explanation may exist since 92% of these patients share the symptom of bloating regardless of their predominant complaint...
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Background The gut and immune system form a complex integrated structure that has evolved to provide effective digestion and defence against ingested toxins and pathogenic bacteria. However, great variation exists in what is considered normal healthy gut and immune function. Thus, whilst it is possible to measure many aspects of digestion and immunity, it is more difficult to interpret the benefits to individuals of variation within what is considered to be a normal range. Nevertheless, it is im...
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Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis are caused by overly aggressive immune responses to a subset of commensal (nonpathogenic) enteric bacteria in genetically predisposed individuals. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the relative balance of aggressive and protective bacterial species is altered in these disorders. Antibiotics can selectively decrease tissue invasion and eliminate aggressive bacterial species or globally decrease luminal and mucosal bacterial concentra...
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Abstract Objective The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host–bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production. Methods Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn’s disease. Mucosal explants were cultured...
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Critically ill patients have an alteration in the microbiome in which it becomes a disease-promoting pathobiome. It is characterized by lower bacterial diversity, loss of commensal phyla, like Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and a domination of pathogens belonging to the Proteobacteria phylum. Although these alterations are multicausal, many of the treatments administered to these patients, like antibiotics, play a significant role. Critically ill patients also have a hyperpermeable gut barrier an...
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