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The use and perceived effectiveness of recovery modalities and monitoring techniques in elite sport

Published on Jan 1, 2009in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 3.62
· DOI :10.1016/j.jsams.2008.12.057
M. Simjanovic1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UQ: University of Queensland),
Sue L. Hooper18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Queensland Academy of Sport)
+ 2 AuthorsSteven Rynne10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UQ: University of Queensland)
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Abstract
Post-exercise recovery techniques are being used increasingly in elite sport, but scientific study in this area is only emerging. The aim of this study was to collect information on the use and perceived effectiveness of the different recovery techniques used with athletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 Queensland Academy of Sport coaches and other high-performance coaches from seven sports (three team sports and four individual sports). The interview questions sought to examine the coaches’ understanding of recovery, personal experiences, and the modalities and techniques used with their athletes. Interviews lasted an average of 45 minutes and were transcribed for qualitative content analysis and checked for accuracy by the coaches. Triangular consensus was used throughout the coding process to constantly revisit and redefine the open and axial codes that emerged. Three themes emerged: understanding of recovery, recovery modalities used, and monitoring of recovery. Understanding of recovery relates to the coaches’ overall view and general understanding of recovery. Coaches reported that recovery consisted of physical, mental and neural components, and is important to the overall performance, repeated performance, and training of athletes. Coaches gained their recovery knowledge from a variety of sources across their own athlete and coaching pathways. Transferring this knowledge to athletes was perceived as important for enabling athletes to implement and adhere to recovery within their training plans. The recovery modalities used most often were low-intensity activity, stretching, nutrition, massage, contrast water immersion, cryotherapy, sleep and rest. Practicality and accessibility (e.g., time and cost) for the athletes’ daily training environment were key factors influencing use of different recovery modalities. Coaches reported that they applied recovery modalities according to their own past coaching experiences or experiences of other coaches and sport science professionals. It appeared that coaches learn recovery information best by watching and speaking with others, especially other coaches and sports personnel. Factors contributing to use of recovery modalities include convenience and accessibility of a modality. Time restraint was an evident factor. Other factors that seem to contribute to the use of recovery modalities include the awareness of a modality’s existence, perceived modality strength of effect (or negative effect), and the compliance with and attitude of athletes to the modality. The personal experience of a coach using specific recovery modalities also impacted on whether the coach prescribed the modality and encouraged athletes to use the modality. However, it was clear from the study that athletes need to take responsibility for applying the recovery modalities themselves mainly because of logistical reasons. Recovery was monitored most often through informal observation rather than formal investigation. The most common monitoring approaches were coach observation and athlete reporting (diaries and discussions). Some coaches indicated that using a combination of approaches is useful and effective for gaining maximal benefits. Further investigation of monitoring approaches and prioritising them in terms of ease of implementation are needed. In summary, this study provided insight into the use of recovery modalities in elite sport and implications for use by professionals assisting coaches and athletes. In light of the limited research in some areas of recovery, a network could be established to capture the coaches’ learned experiences and information on recovery to share with each other across different sports.
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Published on Mar 28, 2019in European Journal of Sport Science 2.38
Rebecca Cross2
Estimated H-index: 2
(USYD: University of Sydney),
Jason C. Siegler21
Estimated H-index: 21
(USYD: University of Sydney)
+ 1 AuthorsRichard J Lovell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(USYD: University of Sydney)
ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to determine the in-season micro-cycle scheduling strategies used in professional team sport with particular reference to the reasoning and perceptions that underpin current practice. An online survey was completed by 35 practitioners from professional collision (C; Australian rules football: n = 9; rugby league: n = 6; rugby union: n = 2) and non-collision (NC; soccer; n = 18) sports. Respondents identified a common 48 h post-match recovery period, with few sch...
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Physical Therapy in Sport 2.00
Andrew Murray8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh),
Hugh Fullagar10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)
+ 1 AuthorsJohn Sproule20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh)
Abstract Objectives Establish current practice and attitudes towards recovery in a group of Division-1 Collegiate athletes from North America. Design A 16-item questionnaire was administered via custom software in an electronic format. Participants 152 student athletes from a Division-1 Collegiate school across 3 sports (Basketball, American Football, Soccer). Main outcome measures The approaches and attitudes to recovery in both training and competition. Results Sleep, cold water immersion (CWI...
Published on May 14, 2018in PLOS ONE 2.78
Louis-Solal Giboin6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Ehsan Amiri (Razi University)+ 1 AuthorsMarkus Gruber22
Estimated H-index: 22
Purpose Active recovery is often used by athletes after strenuous exercise or competition but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that active recovery speeds-up recovery processes within the muscle and the central nervous system (CNS). Methods We assessed muscular and CNS recovery by measuring the voluntary activation (VA) in the vastus lateralis muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation (VATMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) during maximal voluntary ...
Fiona Crowther2
Estimated H-index: 2
(JCU: James Cook University),
Rebecca Sealey8
Estimated H-index: 8
(JCU: James Cook University)
+ 2 AuthorsShona L. Halson26
Estimated H-index: 26
(AIS: Australian Institute of Sport)
Background A variety of recovery strategies are used by athletes, although there is currently no research that investigates perceptions and usage of recovery by different competition levels of team sport athletes.
Published on May 1, 2016in Journal of Sport and Health Science 3.64
Michel Nicolas8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Burgundy),
Philippe Vacher2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Burgundy)
+ 1 AuthorsLaurent Mourot20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UFC: University of Franche-Comté)
Abstract Background Psychological stress and recovery monitoring is a key issue for increasing athletes' health, well-being, and performance. This multi-study report examined changes and the dose–response relationships between recovery–stress psychological states, training load (TL), heart rate (HR), heart rate recovery (HRR), and heart rate variability (HRV) while providing evidence for the factorial validity of a short French version of the Recovery–Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-36-...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in European Journal of Sport Science 2.38
Rachel E. Venter6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Stellenbosch University)
The aim of this study was to determine how elite team athletes perceive the importance of various recovery modalities. Differences between men and women, players from various team sports and different levels of participation were determined. A total of 890 athletes who volunteered to participate in the study were team players from field hockey (n213; mean age 21.893.3 years), netball (n215; mean age 22.094.0 years), rugby union (n317; mean age 23.293 years) and soccer (n145; mean age 21.392.2 ye...
Published on Sep 14, 2010in Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 3.63
Michael Kellmann22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UQ: University of Queensland)
In sports, the importance of optimizing the recovery–stress state is critical. Effective recovery from intense training loads often faced by elite athletes can often determine sporting success or failure. In recent decades, athletes, coaches, and sport scientists have been keen to find creative, new methods for improving the quality and quantity of training for athletes. These efforts have consistently faced barriers, including overtraining, fatigue, injury, illness, and burnout. Physiological a...
Rachel E. Venter6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Justus R. Potgieter6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Justhinus G. Barnard1
Estimated H-index: 1
Athletes competing at the highest level, should optimally balance training and competition stress with adequate recovery. However, athletes are not always aware of the available recovery options. This study investigated the recovery modalities currently used by elite South African sports persons. Research questions focused on types and frequency of recovery strategies used by players from four different sport codes (hockey, netball, rugby and soccer), as well as from different levels of particip...