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Apollo measurements of lunar dust amidst geology priorities

Published on Mar 1, 2012in Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 1.22
· DOI :10.1080/08120099.2011.653984
Brian J. O'Brien2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
Abstract
Geology dominated the science of the six successful Apollo lunar sampling expeditions. About 380 kg of rocks and soils were collected in 2400 samples, along with many thousands of documenting photos. Lunar dust shrouding Moonscapes, obscuring and coating rock samples, was a nuisance for geologist-advisers and plagued each astronaut with its inescapable presence, sticking to every surface. Lunar dust was judged by Apollo 17 geologist-astronaut Harrison Schmitt as ‘No. 1 environmental problem on the Moon.’ As fine as talcum powder but more abrasive than sandpaper, dust jeopardised vacuum sealing of sample containers to preserve rocks free from terrestrial contamination, just as later at Houston it jeopardised long-term archives of lunar samples. Yet the only one type of Apollo experiment to measure dust and its movements in situ was a matchbox-sized Dust Detector Experiment (DDE) weighing 270 g deployed on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), which transmitted DDE data...
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Published on Nov 1, 2011in Planetary and Space Science 1.82
Brian J. O'Brien2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
Abstract This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969–30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experim...
23 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2011in Planetary and Space Science 1.82
Mihaly Horanyi50
Estimated H-index: 50
,
Alan Stern1
Estimated H-index: 1
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2011in Planetary and Space Science 1.82
E. Gruen8
Estimated H-index: 8
(MPG: Max Planck Society),
Mihaly Horanyi50
Estimated H-index: 50
,
Zoltan Sternovsky20
Estimated H-index: 20
Abstract Each year the Moon is bombarded by about 10 6 kg of interplanetary micrometeoroids of cometary and asteroidal origin. Most of these projectiles range from 10 nm to about 1 mm in size and impact the Moon at 10–72 km/s speed. They excavate lunar soil about 1000 times their own mass. These impacts leave a crater record on the surface from which the micrometeoroid size distribution has been deciphered. Much of the excavated mass returns to the lunar surface and blankets the lunar crust with...
52 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2011
Tom Corbett1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Space Cadet1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Star Trek1
Estimated H-index: 1
American television first blasted off into the spaceways in 1950 with Tom Corbett, Space Cadet, Captain Video, and Space Patrol, initiating a so- called Golden Age of science fiction television.1 Yes, even the Gothic imagination has a sense of whimsy! Primarily appealing to young and adolescent viewers, Corbett, Captain Video, and Buzz Corey, respectively, like so many modern-day Peter Pans, flew into the windows, as it were, of the nation’s homes and living rooms, carrying away to Never Land th...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2010in Icarus 2.98
Tara Murphy34
Estimated H-index: 34
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego),
E. G. Adelberger31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 6 AuthorsH. E. Swanson21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Washington)
Forty years ago, Apollo astronauts placed the first of several retroreflector arrays on the lunar surface. Their continued usefulness for laser ranging might suggest that the lunar environment does not damage optical devices. However, new laser ranging data reveal that the efficiency of the three Apollo reflector arrays is now diminished by a factor of 10 at all lunar phases and by an additional factor of 10 when the lunar phase is near full Moon. These deficits did not exist in the earliest yea...
39 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2010in Planetary and Space Science 1.82
Timothy J. Stubbs22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UMBC: University of Maryland, Baltimore County),
David A. Glenar9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NMSU: New Mexico State University)
+ 1 AuthorsDenis Richard2
Estimated H-index: 2
(SJSU: San Jose State University)
Abstract The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft will orbit the Moon at an altitude of ≈50 km with a payload that includes the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) instrument, which will obtain high spectral resolution measurements at near-ultraviolet and visible wavelengths (≈231–826 nm). When LADEE/UVS observes the lunar limb from within the shadow of the Moon it is anticipated that it will detect a lunar horizon glow (LHG) due to sunlight scattered from submicron exosp...
23 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 30, 2010in Journal of Geophysical Research 2.71
Peter A. Taylor31
Estimated H-index: 31
(York University),
Henrik Kahanpää13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Finnish Meteorological Institute)
+ 9 AuthorsV. J. Hipkin10
Estimated H-index: 10
(CSA: Canadian Space Agency)
[1] In situ surface pressures measured at 2 s intervals during the 150 sol Phoenix mission are presented and seasonal variations discussed. The lightweight Barocap®/Thermocap® pressure sensor system performed moderately well. However, the original data processing routine had problems because the thermal environment of the sensor was subject to more rapid variations than had been expected. Hence, the data processing routine was updated after Phoenix landed. Further evaluation and the development ...
31 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 24, 2010in Journal of Geophysical Research 2.71
W. M. Farrell41
Estimated H-index: 41
(NASA Lunar Science Institute),
Timothy J. Stubbs22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UMBC: University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
+ 4 AuthorsR. R. Vondrak5
Estimated H-index: 5
(NASA Lunar Science Institute)
[1] Shadowed locations near the lunar poles are almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters. In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface. On the leeward side of large obstructions, plasma voids are formed in the solar wind because of...
48 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 17, 2010in Journal of Geophysical Research 2.71
L. A. Taylor56
Estimated H-index: 56
(UT: University of Tennessee),
Carle M. Pieters69
Estimated H-index: 69
(Brown University)
+ 4 AuthorsDavid S. McKay36
Estimated H-index: 36
[1] With reflectance spectroscopy, one is measuring only properties of the fine-grained regolith most affected by space weathering. The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has undertaken the task of coordinated characterization of lunar soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. It is these lunar soils that are being used as “ground truth” for all airless bodies. Modal abundances and chemistries of minerals and glasses in the finest size fractions (20–45, 10–20, and <10 μ...
52 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 6, 2009in Geophysical Research Letters 4.34
Brian O'Brien1
Estimated H-index: 1
[1] Dust is the Number 1 environmental hazard on the Moon, yet its movements and adhesive properties are little understood. Matchbox-sized, 270-gram Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) measured contrasting effects triggered by rocket exhausts of Lunar Modules (LM) after deployment 17 m and 130 m from Apollo 11 and 12 LMs. Apollo 11 Lunar Seismometer was contaminated, overheated and terminated after 21 days operation. Apollo 12 hardware was splashed with collateral lunar dust during deployment. DDE ...
16 Citations Source Cite
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