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Microstructure and corrosion properties of diode laser melted friction stir weld of aluminum alloy 2024 T351

Published on Feb 1, 2011in Applied Surface Science 4.44
· DOI :10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.11.163
Samar Jyoti Kalita3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of North Dakota)
Abstract
Abstract Friction stir welding is a promising solid state joining process for high strength aluminum alloys. Though friction stir welding eliminates the problems of fusion welding as it is performed below melting temperature ( T m ), it creates severe plastic deformation. Friction stir welds of some aluminum alloys exhibit relatively poor corrosion resistance. This research enhanced the corrosion properties of such welds through diode laser surface melting. A friction stir weld of aluminum alloy 2024 T351 was laser melted using a 1 kW diode laser. The melt-depth and microstructure were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The melt zone exhibited epitaxially grown columnar grains. At the interface between the melted and the un-melted zone, a thick planar boundary was observed. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzed the redistribution of elemental composition. The corrosion properties of the laser melted and native welds were studied in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution using open circuit potential and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization. The results show noticeable increase in the pit nucleation resistance (390 mV) after the laser surface treatment. The repassivation potential was nobler to the corrosion potential after the laser treatment, which confirmed that the resistance to pit growth was improved.
  • References (22)
  • Citations (33)
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References22
Newest
Published on May 1, 2006in Applied Surface Science 4.44
T.M. Yue34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
L.J. Yan3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
C.P. Chan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
Abstract Nd-YAG laser surface treatment was conducted on 7075-T651 aluminum alloy with the aim of improving the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the alloy. Laser surface treatment was performed under two different gas environments, air and nitrogen. After the laser treatment, coarse constituent particles were removed and fine cellular/dendritic structures had formed. In addition, for the N 2 -treated specimen, an AlN phase was detected. The results of the stress corrosion test showed that...
34 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2005in Materials Science & Engineering R-reports 24.48
Rajiv S. Mishra51
Estimated H-index: 51
(Missouri University of Science and Technology),
Z. Y. Ma6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and other metallic alloys that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. FSW is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in a decade. Recently, friction stir processing (FSP) was developed for microstructural modification ...
3,575 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2005in Applied Surface Science 4.44
Zhan-Guo Liu29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Manchester),
P.H. Chong4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Manchester)
+ 2 AuthorsG.E. Thompson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Manchester)
Abstract The corrosion performance of laser-melted AA 2014-T6 and AA 2024-T351 alloys, using a 2 kW CW CO 2 laser, has been examined to gain insight into the factors influencing pitting corrosion resistance. Examination of laser-melted surfaces in terms of microstructure and phase analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with associated elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pittin...
52 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2004in Corrosion Science 4.86
A. Aballe11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Cádiz),
M. Bethencourt22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Cádiz)
+ 2 AuthorsJ.M. Sánchez-Amaya16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Cádiz)
Abstract A study has been conducted of the influence of the surface finish on the behaviour against the corrosion of samples of alloy AA 5083 immersed in aerated solutions of NaCl at 3.5%. Samples polished from 80 to 1200 grit have been tested, utilising as experimental techniques, measurements of weight loss, optical and scanning electron microscopy, linear polarisations and electrochemical noise measurement (ENM). In the conditions studied, the principal corrosion process that takes place is l...
43 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2004in Physica B-condensed Matter 1.45
P. Staron3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
M. Koçak3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 1 AuthorsA Wescott1
Estimated H-index: 1
(BAE Systems)
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for aluminum alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. A potential field of application is aircraft structures where cost and weight can be reduced by using new joining techniques instead of riveting. Efforts are currently being made to qualify FSW for this purpose. In this study, the influence of a coolant applied during welding of Al sheets on the residual stress state of the FSW joint was investigated. Liquid CO2 c...
111 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2004in Physica B-condensed Matter 1.45
R. A. Cowley1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques have been used to characterise and study the rare earth superlattices and the superlattices of Laves phase materials. For the rare earth superlattices systems such as Ho/Y, Ho/Lu, Dy/Y and Ho/Dy have magnetic structures with coherence over hundreds of angstroms. In contrast other systems such as Ho/Pr, or Ho/Sc or Ho/Er do not have long-range coherence. It is argued that this is because the conduction electrons can cross the interfaces easily in t...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2004in Surface & Coatings Technology 2.91
T. M. Yue8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
L.J. Yan3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
+ 3 AuthorsG.K.H Pang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
Abstract Excimer laser surface treatment was found to be an effective method for improving the pitting corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy 7075. The results of the TEM study showed that laser surface melting of the alloy at an intensity of 10.3 J/cm 2 resulted in the elimination of coarse second-phase particles in the laser-melted zone. More importantly, two compact layers containing aluminum oxide were formed on top of the laser-melted surface. Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed t...
64 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2003in International Journal of Fatigue 3.13
Mats Ericsson17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Royal Institute of Technology),
Rolf Sandström27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Royal Institute of Technology)
Abstract The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the fatigue strength of friction stir (FS) welds is influenced by the welding speed, and also to compare the fatigue results with results for conventional arc-welding methods: MIG-pulse and TIG. The Al–Mg–Si alloy 6082 was FS welded in the T6 and T4 temper conditions, and MIG-pulse and TIG welded in T6. The T4-welded material was subjected to a post-weld ageing treatment. According to the results, welding speed in the tested r...
248 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2002in Materials Science Forum
W. M. Thomas4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
E.D. Nicholas2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsD. G. Staines4
Estimated H-index: 4
27 Citations Source Cite
K.N. Krishnan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Adelaide)
Abstract Onion rings are the most prominent features of most friction stir welds. The origin and the effect of these on properties are not clearly understood. In this paper, an attempt has been made to explain the formation of onion rings. The formation of onion ring is found to be a geometric effect due to the fact that cylindrical sheets of material are extruded during each rotation of the tool and the cutting through the section of the material produces an apparent ‘Onion Rings’. It is postul...
283 Citations Source Cite
Cited By33
Newest
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Bioelectrochemistry 3.79
Junlei Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Huazhong University of Science and Technology),
Fuping Xiong2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
+ 6 AuthorsHongfang Liu18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
Abstract In this study, the corrosion behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in a high salinity environment containing Aspergillus niger was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, surface analysis and electrochemical measurement. Results demonstrated that uniform and localized corrosion rates of the alloy in the presence of A. niger were approximately 3.7 and 22.4 times, respectively, of that in the absence A. niger . This higher corro...
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Published on Jul 4, 2019in Science and Technology of Welding and Joining 1.94
Wenya Li34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Northwestern Polytechnical University),
Congcong Cao (Northwestern Polytechnical University)+ 3 AuthorsXiawei Yang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2019in Corrosion Science 4.86
Guoyun Luo (Hunan University), Hui Xiao5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Hunan University)
+ 3 AuthorsLijun Song8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Hunan University)
Abstract A quasi-continuous-wave laser surface melting is performed on 2219 aluminium alloys to improve the corrosion resistance. The fast cooling rate and the multi-directional solidification behavior of the process transform large and long-chained constituent particles into fine and isolated circular precipitates with alleviated solute segregation. The improved corrosion resistance is due to the formation of low-flaw-density passive film, the reduction of the driving force for corrosion and th...
Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Optics and Lasers in Engineering 3.39
Michael Rasch1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Erlangen-Nuremberg),
Clemens Roider6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)
+ 4 AuthorsMichael Schmidt20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)
Abstract Heat conduction welding is often used where weld seams with a high surface quality and the exact retention of the chemical composition are needed. This study investigates the influence of intensity profiles in laser beam welding with laser powers up to 3.2 kW. The resulting process windows for heat conduction mode welding, the melt pool shape, the process stability and the dynamics, and the produced surface roughness are analysed. Therefore, three different intensity profiles are create...
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Published on Jan 2, 2019in Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology 1.07
Changyu Zhao1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology),
Hua Zhang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsChengliang Dou1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology)
ABSTRACTThis work evaluates the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of Al coating deposited by cold spraying onto FSW AA2219 alloy. The results showed that a dense coating could be deposited on the FSW joint surface with low porosity (0.77%). XRD analysis indicated that no new phases were formed during the spraying. Refined grains were observed in the coating as expected by SEM results. Electrochemical tests revealed the coating had positive corrosion resistance performance. Immersion tests c...
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Published on Sep 1, 2018in Surface & Coatings Technology 2.91
N. Li2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Northwestern Polytechnical University),
Wenya Li34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
+ 2 AuthorsA. Vairis10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
Abstract A pure Al coating and Al based composite coating reinforced with 20 vol% Al 2 O 3 particles were deposited onto a friction stir welded AA2024-T3 joint substrate. The effects of hard Al 2 O 3 particles on the coating microstructure, electrochemical behavior and wear performance were investigated. Microstructural analysis shows that the addition of ceramic particles enhances the coating density. Results of electrochemical tests show that both the Al-20 vol% Al 2 O 3 composite coating and ...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Applied Surface Science 4.44
Ning Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Northwestern Polytechnical University),
W.Y. Li10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
+ 2 AuthorsA. Vairis10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
Abstract Using cold spraying (CS), a surface layer with a modified microstructure and enhanced mechanical properties was formed on a 3.2 mm thick friction stir welded (FSWed) AA2024-T3 joint. The combined effect of “shot peening effect (SPE)” and “heat flow effect (HFE)” during CS were used to enhance joint mechanical properties. The microstructure evolution of the FSWed AA2024-T3 joints in the surface layer following CS coatings and their effect on mechanical properties were systematically char...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Optics and Laser Technology 2.50
Shengchong Ma1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Jiangsu University),
Yong Zhao10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Jiangsu University)
+ 2 AuthorsChuan Liu4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Jiangsu University)
Abstract This study aimed to explore the electrochemical properties and microstructure of friction stir welds to understand the correlation between their properties and processing. Friction stir welding is a promising solid-state joining process for high-strength aluminum alloys (AA). Although friction stir welding (FSW) eliminates the problems of fusion welding due to the fact that it is performed below T m , it causes severe plastic deformation in the material. Some AA welded by FSW exhibit re...
5 Citations Source Cite
W.Y. Li4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Northwestern Polytechnical University),
N. Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
+ 2 AuthorsA. Vairis10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
Abstract The tensile properties of friction stir welded AA2024-T3 joints at the rotation speed range of 600–900 rpm and a constant welding speed of 200 mm/min were summarized, finding that the optimized rotation speed is 600 rpm which yield a maximum tensile strength of 420 MPa. Subsequently, an aluminum coating was deposited on the optimized joint surface by cold spraying (CS). The microstructural evolution in the layer near the surface of the coated joint was investigated by a combination of t...
6 Citations Source Cite