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Microstructure and corrosion properties of diode laser melted friction stir weld of aluminum alloy 2024 T351
Published on Feb 1, 2011in Applied Surface Science 4.44
· DOI :10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.11.163
Samar Jyoti Kalita3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of North Dakota)
Abstract
Abstract Friction stir welding is a promising solid state joining process for high strength aluminum alloys. Though friction stir welding eliminates the problems of fusion welding as it is performed below melting temperature ( T m ), it creates severe plastic deformation. Friction stir welds of some aluminum alloys exhibit relatively poor corrosion resistance. This research enhanced the corrosion properties of such welds through diode laser surface melting. A friction stir weld of aluminum alloy 2024 T351 was laser melted using a 1 kW diode laser. The melt-depth and microstructure were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The melt zone exhibited epitaxially grown columnar grains. At the interface between the melted and the un-melted zone, a thick planar boundary was observed. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzed the redistribution of elemental composition. The corrosion properties of the laser melted and native welds were studied in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution using open circuit potential and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization. The results show noticeable increase in the pit nucleation resistance (390 mV) after the laser surface treatment. The repassivation potential was nobler to the corrosion potential after the laser treatment, which confirmed that the resistance to pit growth was improved.
  • References (22)
  • Cited By (29)
Cite
References22
Published on Aug 1, 1984
John E. Hatch1
Estimated H-index: 1
Comprehensive information for the American aluminium industry Collective effort of 53 recognized experts on aluminium and aluminium alloys Joint venture by world renowned authorities-the Aluminium Association Inc. and American Society for Metals. The completely updated source of information on aluminium industry as a whole rather than its individual contributors. this book is an opportunity to gain from The knowledge of the experts working for prestigious companies such as Alcoa, Reynolds Metals...
883 Citations
Published on Nov 15, 1999
Joseph R. Davis1
Estimated H-index: 1
This volume presents comprehensive coverage of the corrosion behavior of aluminum and aluminum alloys, with emphasis on practical information about how to select and process these materials in order to prevent corrosion attack. Described are the characteristics of these materials and the influences of composition, mechanical working, heat treatment, joining methods, microstructure, and environmental variables on their corrosion.
354 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2001
C. Dalle Donne1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
E. Lima2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 2 AuthorsT. Buslaps2
Estimated H-index: 2
55 Citations
Published on Jul 1, 2002in Materials Science Forum
W.M. Thomas1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
E.D. Nicholas1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsD.G. Staines1
Estimated H-index: 1
25 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Journal of The Electrochemical Society 3.66
Barbara A. Shaw4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
G. D. Davis7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 2 AuthorsW. C. Moshier11
Estimated H-index: 11
Transition metals such as Mo, W, Ta, Cr, and W can be used to significantly enhance the localized corrosion resistance of Al. Since these elements exhibit very low solubilities in aluminum, a nonequilibrium alloying method, such as sputter deposition, must be used to produce single-phase alloys. The addition of approximately 9 atom percent W to Al can shift its pitting potential in the positive direction as much as 2600 mV. Heat-treatment of these nonequilibrium alloys results in the precipitati...
66 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2004in Surface & Coatings Technology 2.91
T. M. Yue9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
L.J. Yan4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
+ 3 AuthorsG.K.H Pang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
Abstract Excimer laser surface treatment was found to be an effective method for improving the pitting corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy 7075. The results of the TEM study showed that laser surface melting of the alloy at an intensity of 10.3 J/cm 2 resulted in the elimination of coarse second-phase particles in the laser-melted zone. More importantly, two compact layers containing aluminum oxide were formed on top of the laser-melted surface. Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed t...
60 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2004in Physica B-condensed Matter 1.45
P Staron1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
M Koçak1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsA Wescott1
Estimated H-index: 1
(BAE Systems)
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for aluminum alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. A potential field of application is aircraft structures where cost and weight can be reduced by using new joining techniques instead of riveting. Efforts are currently being made to qualify FSW for this purpose. In this study, the influence of a coolant applied during welding of Al sheets on the residual stress state of the FSW joint was investigated. Liquid CO2 c...
110 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1996in Surface & Coatings Technology 2.91
R. Li7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Instituto Superior Técnico),
M.G.S. Ferreira65
Estimated H-index: 65
(Instituto Superior Técnico)
+ 4 AuthorsW.M. Steen6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract Laser surface melting of 2024-T351 aluminium alloy with a CO 2 laser operating at 2 kW with a spot size of 1.5 mm and a substrate traverse rate of 20 mm s −1 produced a relatively thin surface-melted layer with a refined microstructure and a modified distribution of the alloying elements. The laser treatment changed both the anodic polarization behaviour and the form of localized corrosion in deaerated 3% NaCl solution. Immersion tests in the same solution under the condition of natural...
53 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2004in Corrosion Science 4.86
A. Aballe11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Cádiz),
M. Bethencourt22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Cádiz)
+ 2 AuthorsJ.M. Sánchez-Amaya16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Cádiz)
Abstract A study has been conducted of the influence of the surface finish on the behaviour against the corrosion of samples of alloy AA 5083 immersed in aerated solutions of NaCl at 3.5%. Samples polished from 80 to 1200 grit have been tested, utilising as experimental techniques, measurements of weight loss, optical and scanning electron microscopy, linear polarisations and electrochemical noise measurement (ENM). In the conditions studied, the principal corrosion process that takes place is l...
40 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2005in Applied Surface Science 4.44
Z. Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Manchester),
P.H. Chong5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Manchester)
+ 2 AuthorsG.E. Thompson52
Estimated H-index: 52
(University of Manchester)
Abstract The corrosion performance of laser-melted AA 2014-T6 and AA 2024-T351 alloys, using a 2 kW CW CO 2 laser, has been examined to gain insight into the factors influencing pitting corrosion resistance. Examination of laser-melted surfaces in terms of microstructure and phase analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with associated elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pittin...
50 Citations Source Cite
Cited By29
Published on Jan 1, 2014
H.S. Arora1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Texas at Austin),
H. S. Grewal6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 1 AuthorsB. K. Dhindaw20
Estimated H-index: 20
This chapter presents a comprehensive study on the influence of friction stir processing/welding (FSW/FSP) on corrosion behaviour. It briefly discusses the different aspects of corrosion including corrosion types, measurement techniques and data analysis. The corrosion behaviour of a wide range of friction stir processed materials, including light weight metals such as magnesium and aluminum alloys, as well as high strength metals such as steel, has been discussed in detail. The influence of FSP...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2013
J.M. Sánchez Amaya1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
M.R. Amaya-Vázquez2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Cádiz),
F.J. Botana25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Cádiz)
Abstract: In this chapter, laser welding procedures employed in the literature to join aluminium and titanium alloys are reviewed. The chapter is divided into two main sections, comprising reviews of the literature on laser welding of aluminium alloys and titanium alloys, respectively. Each of these sections has an introductory part in which general concepts and specific properties influencing the weldability of alloys are described. Subsequently, the main experimental details of the reviewed pa...
5 Citations Source Cite
Erin E. Patterson2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Washington State University)
This work focuses on the microstructural characterization of aluminum to steel friction stir welded joints. Lap weld configuration coupled with scribe technology used for the weld tool have produced joints of adequate quality, despite the significant differences in hardness and melting temperatures of the alloys. Common to friction stir processes, especially those of dissimilar alloys, are microstructural gradients including grain size, crystallographic texture, and precipitation of intermetalli...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Defence Technology
G. Rambabu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Andhra University),
D. Balaji Naik1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Andhra University)
+ 2 AuthorsG. Madhusudan Reddy5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory)
Abstract The aluminium alloy AA2219 (Al–Cu–Mg alloy) is widely used in the fabrication of lightweight structures with high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Welding is main fabrication method of AA2219 alloy for manufacturing various engineering components. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a recently developed solid state welding process to overcome the problems encountered in fusion welding. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat on the abutting ...
26 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Procedia CIRP
Vittorio Alfieria1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Salerno),
Fabrizia Caiazzoa1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Salerno),
Vincenzo Sergi8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Salerno)
Abstract Laser welding has been proven to be promising for aerospace. Welds with high aspect ratio are produced with lower heat input compared with conventional arc-welding processes; furthermore, higher productivity and lower distortion are benefited. Nevertheless, specific issues must be addressed depending on the material to be welded. In this frame, laser welding of AA 2024 in T3 heat treatment condition, which is among the most common light metal alloys in aerospace, is discussed. A compreh...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Journal of Materials Science & Technology 3.61
Yue Yang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Changchun University),
Leilei Zhou1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Changchun University)
An attempt has been made to improve the corrosion resistance of friction stir welded joints of 7075 aluminum alloys by micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and the effects of Na 2 SiO 3 concentration in electrolyte on the corrosion resistance of the coatings were discussed. Morphology and phase constituents of the MAO coatings produced in electrolyte with different Na 2 SiO 3 concentrations were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Electrochem...
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2012in Key Engineering Materials
Yu E Ma1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Northwestern Polytechnical University),
Zhen Qiang Zhao1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Northwestern Polytechnical University)
Before friction stir welded integral panels are used in main aircraft structure, the corrosion behavior of welded joint need to be studied in detail. 2024 T3 samples were designed and welded by friction stir welding; the microstructure crossing the weld zone was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the feature of different zones (base material, thermo-mechanical affected zone, nugget) was seen; the corrosion testing in NaCl smoking box was carried out, and microstructure was observed ...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2014in Applied Surface Science 4.44
Shaohua Yan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Southwest Jiaotong University),
Yuan Nie2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Southwest Jiaotong University)
+ 4 AuthorsGuiguo Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract In this study, the microstructures, mechanical properties and fatigue strengths of the hybrid laser-MIG welded joints were investigated. The detailed microstructures of the hybrid welded joints were carried out using OM and TEM. The causes of the strengths loss of the hybrid welded joints were studied from aspects of solute strengthening, precipitates hardening, and grain boundary strengthening. The fatigue strengths of the hybrid welded joints, MIG welded joints, and base metals were i...
24 Citations Source Cite
Fabrizia Caiazzo10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Vittorio Alfieri8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 1 AuthorsVincenzo Sergi8
Estimated H-index: 8
Higher productivity, lower distortion and better penetration are the main advantages provided by laser welding in comparison with conventional processes. A Trumpf TruDisk 2002 Yb:YAG disk laser is used in this work to increases productivity and quality. Aluminium alloys lead to many technological issues in laser welding, resulting in shallow penetration and defects. In particular, AA 2024 aluminium alloy in a thin sheet is investigated in this paper, being it is used extensively in the automotiv...
15 Citations Source Cite
You Lv4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Technology College),
Liqun Lei3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Technology College),
Lina Sun3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Technology College)
Abstract The effect of combined laser surface melting and shot peening (LSMSP for short) on fatigue resistance of 20CrMnTi steel gear is investigated in this paper. After laser surface melting (LSM) treatment to gear tooth flanks, gear was treated by shot peening (SP) with different peening intensities. The residual stresses, full width at half maximum (FWHM), microhardness, retained austenite volume fraction and surface roughness of the LSMSP gear were measured. The Forschungsstelle fur Zahnrad...
22 Citations Source Cite
View next paperThe effect of laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behavior of friction stir welded aluminum alloy 2219