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The ontogeny of locomotor play behaviour in the domestic cat

Published on May 1, 1985in Animal Behaviour2.67
· DOI :10.1016/S0003-3472(85)80073-7
Paul Martin13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Cambridge),
Patrick Bateson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Cambridge)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract A descriptive account is given of the development of locomotor play in the domestic cat ( Felis catus ) under laboratory conditions. The subjects were seven families, each family consisting of a mother and her two kittens and living in its own indoor pen. Each family was separately presented with a multi-level climbing frame for 30 min once every 3 days, between 36 and 60 days after birth (nine presentations in total). Kittens spent a substantial proportion of the observation session climbing, sitting, standing and walking on the frame, especially after 48 days of age. Kittens sometimes lost balance and fell off the frame, particularly when performing more difficult motor acts. Standing and walking on the upper levels of the frame were first seen at 48 days of age and increased in incidence thereafter. Mothers sometimes climbed on to the frame and there was an overall positive association between mothers' and kittens' use of the frame. There were large and consistent behavioural differences between families. The climbing frame provides a potentially useful tool for assessing the development of certain locomotor skills under conditions where the subject's behaviour is spontaneous.
  • References (19)
  • Citations (29)
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References19
Newest
Published on Apr 26, 2010in Ethology1.52
Paul Martin13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Cambridge)
Abstract and Summary The time and energy costs of play behaviour were assessed empirically for 10- to 12-week-old kittens (Felis catus), using a variety of methods. Play was found, on average, to occupy 9% of total time. The net daily energy expenditure (in excess of resting metabolism) due to play was found to account for approximately 4% (and at most 9%) of total daily energy expenditure, excluding growth. These results cast some doubt on the assertion, commonly found in the behavioural litera...
Published on May 1, 1985in Animal Behaviour2.67
Paul Martin13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Cambridge),
Patrick Bateson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Cambridge)
Abstract Two previous studies found that simulating aspects of early weaning, starting 5 weeks after birth, increased the frequency of object play and, to a lesser extent, social play in kittens. The present study further investigated this finding, using the lactation-suppressing drug bromocriptine to simulate a component of early weaning (a reduction in maternal milk production). The experimental manipulation was started a week earlier in ontogeny than in the previous studies. The subjects were...
Published on Jan 1, 1982in BioScience6.59
Maxeen Biben1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Robert M. Fagen4
Estimated H-index: 4
Published on Feb 1, 1981in Animal Behaviour2.67
T.M. Caro2
Estimated H-index: 2
(St And: University of St Andrews)
Abstract Sixteen measures of social play between kittens were found to decrease significantly between 12 and 16 weeks of age. Behaviour was little influenced by the presence of the mother during this time. Although males' rates of behaviour did not differ from females' rates when the sexes were compared regardless of group composition, males from all-male groups played at higher rates than females from all-female groups. Females' rates of behaviour declined as the number of male companions decre...
Published on Feb 1, 1981in Animal Behaviour2.67
Patrick Bateson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Cambridge),
Michelle Young3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Cambridge)
Abstract In seven litters of domestic cats, half of each litter of four were gradually separated from the rest of the family 31–39 days after birth. The separated kittens showed significantly higher frequencies of play on some measures. In part this was because they were more active, but when the play data were corrected for general activity differences, the separated kittens were still found to have played more. The influence of separation from the mother on play may be a facultative response b...
Published on Feb 1, 1981in Animal Behaviour2.67
Anne P. Humphreys2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Durham University),
Dorothy F. Einon6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Durham University)
Abstract The reinforcing value of play for juvenile rats was examined, relative to that of other social experiences. Successive experimental groups chose, in a T-maze, between normal companions and companions whose social behaviour had been rendered abnormal by physical confinement or by amphetamine or chlorpromazine treatment. Both these drugs inhibited play, as did physical restriction, but they had opposing effects on other social behaviours, so that the choice presented was between social ex...
Published on Jan 1, 1981in Behaviour1.40
T.M. Caro2
Estimated H-index: 2
(St And: University of St Andrews)
This study relates changes in social play of kittens to the development of predatory behaviour. Firstly, it documents the development of predatory motor patterns in young cats between the age of 4 and 12 weeks. Correlations between measures of predatory behaviour were found to break down in the 8 to 12 week period of development. Secondly, it examines the development of social play over the same time course. Correlations between some measures of play were also found to break down between 8 and 1...
Published on Jan 1, 1981
P. J. B. Slater1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Sussex)
This article explores reasons for individual differences in animal behavior and points to various ways in which they deserve closer study. Differences in feeding, mating, or fighting behavior may occur because selection favors the adoption of different strategies by different individuals. Variations in signals may arise through selection for animals to be identifiable as individuals or for their relatedness to others to be assessed. The variability of behavior itself varies between different pat...
Published on May 1, 1980in Animal Behaviour2.67
N.R. Chalmers3
Estimated H-index: 3
(OU: Open University)
Abstract Behaviours that always appear playful (play markers) are distinguished from behaviours that appear playful in some contexts, but not others (context-dependent play components). Age changes in the frequency of performance of both kinds of playful behaviours are described, as are age changes in the frequency with which context-dependent play components accompany play markers in baboon social interactions. Some quantitative properties of social interactions containing and lacking play mark...
Published on Jan 1, 1980in Behaviour1.40
T.M. Caro2
Estimated H-index: 2
(St And: University of St Andrews)
This study documents quantitatively the change in predatory behaviour of domestic cat mothers as their kittens develop. Predatory behaviour in mother cats was found to decline as that of their offspring increased. Before kittens were 8 weeks old, mothers were more likely to interact with prey if their kittens had not been on the prey for a time; they led in interactions with prey. Kittens were found to show increased rates of predatory behaviour patterns in the presence of their mother. This pap...
Cited By29
Newest
Published on May 1, 2019in Applied Animal Behaviour Science1.82
Mikel M. Delgado5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis),
Mikel Delgado (UC Davis: University of California, Davis), Julie Hecht (Hunter College)
Abstract Although attention to domestic cat ( Felis silvestris catus ) behavior and cognition has increased in recent years, numerous questions remain regarding their play. Few studies have included play as a variable of interest, and to the best of our knowledge no behavioral studies focusing on cat play have been published in the last 15 years, and there is no recent review of our current understanding of its development, behavioral components, function, or outstanding research questions. This...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Behavioural Processes2.01
Sergio M. Pellis42
Estimated H-index: 42
(U of L: University of Lethbridge),
Vivien C. Pellis29
Estimated H-index: 29
(U of L: University of Lethbridge)
+ 1 AuthorsJean-Baptiste Leca12
Estimated H-index: 12
(U of L: University of Lethbridge)
Abstract Given that many behavior patterns cluster together in sequences that are organized to solve specific problems (e.g., foraging), a fruitful perspective within which to study behaviors is as distinct ‘behavior systems’. Unlike many behavior systems that are widespread (e.g., anti-predator behavior, foraging, reproduction), behavior that can be relegated as playful is diverse, involving behavior patterns that are typically present in other behavior systems, sporadic in its phylogenetic dis...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Applied Animal Behaviour Science1.82
Sarah Brown5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh),
R. Peters1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Scotland's Rural College)
+ 1 AuthorsAlistair Lawrence35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Scotland's Rural College)
Abstract Play behaviour in pre-weaned piglets has previously been shown to vary consistently between litters. This study aimed to determine if these pre-weaning litter differences in play behaviour were also consistent in the post-weaning period. Seven litters of commercially bred piglets were raised in a free farrowing system (PigSAFE) and weaned at 28 days post-farrowing (+/−2 days). Post-weaning piglets were maintained in litter groups in the PigSAFE pen. Analyses have been adjusted for sex b...
Published on Sep 27, 2016in PLOS ONE2.78
Najet Serradj6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CUNY: City University of New York),
John H. Martin41
Estimated H-index: 41
(CUNY: City University of New York)
Evidence suggests that motor experience plays a role in shaping development of the corticospinal system and voluntary motor control, which is a key motor function of the system. Here we used a mouse model with conditional forebrain deletion of the gene for EphA4 (Emx1-Cre:EphA4tm2Kldr), which regulates development of the laterality of corticospinal tract (CST). We combined study of Emx1-Cre:EphA4tm2Kldr with unilateral forelimb constraint during development to expand our understanding of experie...
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Applied Animal Behaviour Science1.82
Sarah Brown5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh),
Michael Klaffenböck1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsAlistair Lawrence35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh)
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse spontaneous play behaviour in litters of domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa ) for sources of variation at individual and litter levels and to relate variation in play to measures of pre and postnatal development. Seven litters of commercially bred piglets ( n = 70) were born (farrowed) within a penning system (PigSAFE) that provided opportunities for the performance of spontaneous play behaviours. Individual behaviour was scored based on an established play ...
Published on Sep 30, 2015in The Journal of Neuroscience6.07
Preston T. J. A. Williams4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CUNY: City University of New York),
John H. Martin41
Estimated H-index: 41
(CUNY: City University of New York)
The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfu...
Published on Nov 24, 2014in Frontiers in Neurology2.63
Kathleen M. Friel23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Cornell University),
Preston T. J. A. Williams4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CUNY: City University of New York)
+ 2 AuthorsJohn H. Martin41
Estimated H-index: 41
(CUNY: City University of New York)
This review presents the mechanistic underpinnings of corticospinal tract (CST) development, derived from animal models, and applies what has been learned to inform neural activity-based strategies for CST repair. We first discuss that, in normal development, early bilateral CST projections are later refined into a dense crossed CST projection, with maintenance of sparse ipsilateral projections. Using a novel mouse genetic model, we show that promoting the ipsilateral CST projection produces mir...
Published on Jun 1, 2014in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery1.58
Gareth E. Zeiler5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Pretoria),
Geoffrey T. Fosgate25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Pretoria)
+ 1 AuthorsEva Rioja9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Liverpool)
We evaluated behavioural changes in domestic cats during short-term hospitalisation using a novel cat demeanour scoring system. Thirty-five healthy, client-owned cats admitted for neutering were enrolled. Cats were housed in a standardised cat ward for a short-term hospitalisation period (3–5 days) and demeanour scores were recorded once daily. The scoring system classified cats into one of five behavioural groupings: friendly and confident, friendly and shy, withdrawn and protective, withdrawn ...
Published on Mar 19, 2014in The Journal of Neuroscience6.07
Preston T. J. A. Williams4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CUNY: City University of New York),
Sangsoo Kim1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CUNY: City University of New York),
John H. Martin41
Estimated H-index: 41
(CUNY: City University of New York)
The red nucleus (RN) and rubrospinal tract (RST) are important for forelimb motor control. Although the RST is present postnatally in cats, nothing is known about when rubrospinal projections could support motor functions or the relation between the development of the motor functions of the rubrospinal system and the corticospinal system, the other major system for limb control. Our hypothesis is that the RN motor map is present earlier in development than the motor cortex (M1) map, to support e...
View next paperThe development of play in cats.