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Sedentary lifestyle, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome
Published on Aug 1, 2003in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.29
· DOI :10.1249/01.MSS.0000079076.74931.9A
Timo A. Lakka73
Estimated H-index: 73
,
David E. Laaksonen52
Estimated H-index: 52
+ 4 AuthorsJukka T. Salonen97
Estimated H-index: 97
Abstract
ABSTRACT LAKKA, T. A., D. E. LAAKSONEN, H.-M. LAKKA, N. MANNIKKO, L. K. NISKANEN, R. RAURAMAA, and J. T. SALONEN. Sedentary Lifestyle, Poor Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and the Metabolic Syndrome. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 1279–1286, 2003. The cross-sectional associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness with the metabolic syndrome (MS) were investigated in a population-based sample of 1069 middle-aged men without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer. LTPA was assessed using a detailed quantitative questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and core and related features of the MS were determined. A modified World Health Organization definition of the MS and factor analysis were used. Men who engaged in at least moderate-intensity (≥4.5 metabolic equivalents) LTPA <1.0 h·wk−1 were 60% more likely to have the MS than those engaging in ≥ 3.0 h·wk−1 even after adjustment for confounders. Low-intensity (<4.5 metabolic equivalents) LTPA was not associated with the metabolic syndrome. Men with a V̇O2max <29.1 mL·kg−1·min−1 were almost seven times more likely to have the MS than those with a V̇O2max ≥35.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 even after adjusting for confounders. In first-order factor analysis using a promax rotation, the principal factor explained 20% of total variance and had heavy loadings for V̇O2max (−0.57) and at least moderate-intensity LTPA (−0.44), and moderate or heavy loadings for the main components of the MS. The second-order factor analysis generated a principal factor that was strongly loaded on by the main components of the MS and V̇O2max (−0.50) but not LTPA. A sedentary lifestyle and especially poor cardiorespiratory fitness are not only associated with the MS but could also be considered features of the MS. Measurement of V̇O2max in sedentary men with risk factors may provide an efficient means for targeting individuals who would benefit from interventions to prevent the MS and its consequences.
  • References (31)
  • Cited By (341)
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References31
Published on Jan 2, 2001in Annals of Internal Medicine 19.38
Timo A. Lakka73
Estimated H-index: 73
,
Jari A. Laukkanen33
Estimated H-index: 33
+ 4 AuthorsJukka T. Salonen97
Estimated H-index: 97
Background: Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with reduced risk for clinical events of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, but whether it is related to slower progression of early atherosclerosis is unclear. Objective: To study the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the progression of early carotid atherosclerosis. Design: 4-year follow-up study. Setting: Eastern Finland. Participants: Population-based sample of 854 men 42 to 60 years of age. Measurements: Maximal ...
138 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 1999in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.29
Mitchell H. Whaley11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Ball State University),
James B. Kampert33
Estimated H-index: 33
+ 1 AuthorsSteven N. Blair136
Estimated H-index: 136
ABSTRACT Physical fitness and clustering of risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 287-293, 1999. The purposes of this study were to 1) assess the prevalence of clustering of metabolic markers of the MS in a defined population and 2) determine the association between CRF and such clustering in a large group of adult men (N = 15,537) and women (N = 3,899). Metabolic markers of the MS included systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 mm Hg, seru...
102 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 26, 2001in JAMA Internal Medicine 19.99
Jari A. Laukkanen33
Estimated H-index: 33
,
Timo A. Lakka73
Estimated H-index: 73
+ 4 AuthorsJukka T. Salonen97
Estimated H-index: 97
Objective: To examine the relations of cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake and exercise test duration at the initiation of the study, with overall, cardiovascular disease (CVD)‐related, and non‐ CVD-related mortality. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 1294 men with no CVD, pulmonary disease, or cancer at baseline in Kuopio and surrounding communities in eastern Finland. During an average follow-up of 10.7 years, there were 124 overall, 42 CVD-related, and 82...
226 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 1992in American Journal of Epidemiology 4.32
T. A. Lakka1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
J. T. Salonen1
Estimated H-index: 1
The authors studied the association of the type, amount, and intensity of physical activity with serum lipids in 2,492 randomly selected eastern Finnish men aged 42-60 years during 1984-1989, controlling for the major confounding factors. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and HDL2 cholesterol were associated positively and triglycerides inversely with total, occupational, and leisure time activity in a multivariate regression model (p < 0.001). HDL3 cholesterol was associate...
79 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2001in Diabetes Care 13.40
Bo Isomaa45
Estimated H-index: 45
,
Peter Almgren62
Estimated H-index: 62
+ 5 AuthorsLeif Groop125
Estimated H-index: 125
OBJECTIVE —To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —A total of 4,483 subjects aged 35–70 years participating in a large family study of type 2 diabetes in Finland and Sweden (the Botnia study) were included in the analysis of cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome. In subjects who had type 2 diabetes ( n = 1,697), impai...
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Published on Jul 18, 2000in Annals of Internal Medicine 19.38
Robert Ross55
Estimated H-index: 55
,
Damon Dagnone1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsIan Janssen59
Estimated H-index: 59
Background: The independent effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on the reduction of obesity and related comorbid conditions are not known. The effects of exercise without weight loss on fat distribution and other risk factors are also unclear. Objective: To determine the effects of equivalent diet- or exercise-induced weight loss and exercise without weight loss on subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, skeletal muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity in obese men. Design Randomized, controll...
1,105 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1996in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.29
Sari Väisänen20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
Rainer Rauramaa65
Estimated H-index: 65
+ 2 AuthorsCouchard C1
Estimated H-index: 1
The relation of daily energy expenditure (EE) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) to plasma fibrinogen with reference to DNA polymorphism was analyzed in a random sample of men (N = 189), age 50-60. Fibrinogen polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digestion with HindIII and BClI (β-fibrinogen), and TaqI (α-fibrinogen) restriction enzymes. Mean VO 2max was 29.4 ml.kg -1 .min -1 (95%CI 28.5 ; 30.2) and mean daily EE was 179 kJ.kg -1 .d -1 (173 ; 186) and were similar...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2002in Diabetes Care 13.40
David E. Laaksonen52
Estimated H-index: 52
,
Hanna-Maaria Lakka22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 3 AuthorsTimo A. Lakka73
Estimated H-index: 73
OBJECTIVE —Little is known about the association of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness with development of the metabolic syndrome, which predisposes diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. We studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with development of the metabolic syndrome (World Health Organization [WHO] and the National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] definitions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —LTPA over the previous 12 months...
516 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 24, 1996in JAMA Internal Medicine 19.99
John Lynch80
Estimated H-index: 80
,
Susan P. Helmrich3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 4 AuthorsJukka T. Salonen35
Estimated H-index: 35
Background: Physical activity has been advocated as an important factor in the primary prevention of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), but information concerning the specific intensities and durations that are protective has been unavailable. Objective: To examine prospectively the association between self-reported levels of the intensity and duration of physical activities, and cardiorespiratory fitness (assessed by respiratory gas exchange) and incident cases of NIDDM (assessed ...
300 Citations Source Cite
Cited By341
Published on Aug 27, 2008in Nature Precedings
Hyun-Sik Kang9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Soo Hyun Park25
Estimated H-index: 25
,
Shinuk Kim9
Estimated H-index: 9
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the relationship between cardio/respiratory fitness (CRF) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young Korean men. Design: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 909 young Korean men (mean±SD age, 24.0±2 years) who were healthy and not taking any medications affecting blood pressure, glucose, or lipids concentrations. Body fatness, resting blood pressures, and fasting blood levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured with our standardized laboratory protocols...
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Published on Jun 1, 2005in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.29
Gabriel Q. Shaibi23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Southern California),
Martha L. Cruz21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Southern California)
+ 4 AuthorsMichael I. Goran84
Estimated H-index: 84
(University of Southern California)
Purpose: To determine whether cardiovascular fitness (VO 2max ) is associated with the metabolic syndrome and its individual features in overweight Latino youths. Methods: A total of 163 overweight Latino boys and girls (body mass index (BMI) percentile = 97.0 ± 3.1; age = 11.2 ± 1.7 yr) with a family history of Type 2 diabetes participated in this investigation. The metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following risk factors: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, low ...
66 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2007
Luís Bettencourt Sardinha1
Estimated H-index: 1
Physical inactive adults have higher incidence of cardiovascular and total mortality. Unfit subjects tend also to have higher mortality rates. The metabolic syndrome increases with age and tends to increase cardiovascular mortality. Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children, adolescents, and adults improve metabolic syndrome features. Current physical activity guidelines for children, adolescents and adults lack evidence-based health-related criteria. There are...
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Published on Jan 1, 2008
Andrew Scott (Canterbury Christ Church University)
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, characterised by the presence of 3 or more of 1) abdominal obesity, 2) insulin resistance, 3) hypertension, 4) dyslipidaemia, and 5) emerging risk factors, such as pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory states, which are each independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This clustering of risk factors is reported to increase the odds ratio for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality above the risk associated with th...
Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens18
Estimated H-index: 18
(German Sport University Cologne),
Olaf Schulz3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 7 AuthorsBernhard Rauch27
Estimated H-index: 27
Published on Jan 1, 2007
Hye Lim Yoo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Iowa State University)
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship among physical activity, perceived stress, and the metabolic syndrome in law enforcement officers (LEOs). METHODS: 461 sworn LEOs of the Iowa Department of Public Safety were invited to participate. Perceived stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale. Exercise and fitness questionnaires were used to assess the level of physical activity. Perceived stress and physical activity were divided into three categories; Low...
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Published on Jan 1, 2009
Dawn J. Mazzatti10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Kavita Karnik2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsJonathan R. Powell16
Estimated H-index: 16
Ageing is associated with an activation of the innate immune system which manifests in a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory status common in elderly individuals. Age-related inflammatory activity, as measured by increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of inflammatory signalling pathways, leads to long-term tissue damage and is thought to contribute to—and occur as a consequence of—immunosenescence. In addition to immune system deregulation, this elevated inflammatory sta...
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Published on Jun 30, 2005
Domenico Scrutinio11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Fabio Bellotto8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Padua)
+ 1 AuthorsAndrea Passantino14
Estimated H-index: 14
A sedentary lifestyle is one of the five major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) along with hypertension, abnormal values of blood lipids, smoking and obesity. After an acute myocardial infarction, risk factors continue to contribute synergically to the clinical progression and prognosis of CHD. Regular physical exercise has been shown to improve exercise capacity and quality of life, to reduce symptoms and to decrease the risk of new coronary events in patients with CHD. Regular phy...
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