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Analysis of the nucleic acid annealing activities of nucleocapsid protein from HIV-1.

Published on Jan 1, 1995in Nucleic Acids Research11.147
· DOI :10.1093/nar/23.13.2434
Mary Lapadat-Tapolsky2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Christine Pernelle1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsJean-Luc Darlix49
Estimated H-index: 49
Abstract
Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) protein is an integral part of the virion nucleocapsid where it is in tight association with genomic RNA and the tRNA primer. NC protein is necessary for the dimerization and encapsidation of genomic RNA, the annealing of the tRNA primer to the primer binding site (PBS) and the initial strand transfer event. Due to the general nature of NC protein-promoted annealing, its use to improve nucleic acid interactions in various reactions can be envisioned. Parameters affecting NC-promoted nucleic acid annealing of NCp7 from HIV-1 have been analyzed. The promotion of RNA:RNA and RNA:DNA annealing by NCp7 is more sensitive to the concentration of MgCl2 than the promotion of DNA:DNA hybridization. Stimulation of complex formation for all three complexes was efficient at 0-90 mM NaCl, between 23 and 55 degrees C and at pH values between 6.5 and 9.5, inclusive. Parameters affecting NCp7-promoted hybridization of tRNA(Lys,3) to the PBS, which appears to be specific for NC protein, will be discussed. Results implicate the basic regions of NCp7, but not the zinc fingers, in promoting the annealing of complementary nucleic acid sequences. Finally, NCp7 strand transfer activity aids the formation of the most stable nucleic acid complex.
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#1Micah J. McCauley (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 19
#2Ioulia Rouzina (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 7
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Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins are nucleic acid chaperones that play distinct roles in the viral life cycle. During reverse transcription, HIV-1 NC facilitates the rearrangement of nucleic acid secondary structures, allowing the transactivation response (TAR) RNA hairpin to be transiently destabilized and annealed to a complementary RNA hairpin. In contrast, during viral assembly, NC, as a domain of the group-specific antigen (Gag) polyprotein, binds the genomic RNA and facilitates packag...
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#1Micah J. McCauley (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 19
#2Ioulia Rouzina (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 7
Last. Mark C. Williams (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 35
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RNA and DNA hairpin formation and disruption play key regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. The 59-nucleotide transactivation response (TAR) RNA hairpin facilitates the production of full-length transcripts of the HIV-1 genome. Yet the stability of this long, irregular hairpin becomes a liability during reverse transcription as 24 base pairs must be disrupted for strand transfer. Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins serve as nucleic acid chaperones that have been shown to both de...
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Abstract HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone implicated in several steps of the virus replication cycle and an attractive new target for drug development. In reverse transcription, NC destabilizes nucleic acid secondary structures and catalyzes the annealing of HIV-1 TAR RNA to its DNA copy (cTAR) to form the heteroduplex TAR/cTAR. A screening program led to the identification of the plant polyphenols acutissimins A and B as potent inhibitors of NC in different assays. Th...
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#2Marta Cappellini (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 3
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RNA or DNA folded in stable tridimensional folding are interesting targets in the development of antitumor or antiviral drugs. In the case of HIV-1, viral proteins involved in the regulation of the virus activity recognize several nucleic acids. The nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a key protein regulating several processes during virus replication. NC is in fact a chaperone destabilizing the secondary structures of RNA and DNA and facilitating their annealing. The inactivation of NC is a new a...
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Abstract This review aims at briefly presenting a retrospect on the retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC), from an unspecific nucleic acid binding protein (NABP) to an all-in-one viral protein with multiple key functions in the early and late phases of the retrovirus replication cycle, notably reverse transcription of the genomic RNA and viral DNA integration into the host genome, and selection of the genomic RNA together with the initial steps of virus morphogenesis. In this context we will disc...
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Background The nucleocapsid domain of Gag and mature nucleocapsid protein (NC) act as nucleic acid chaperones and facilitate folding of nucleic acids at critical steps of retroviral replication cycle. The basic N-terminus of HIV-1 NC protein was shown most important for the chaperone activity. The HIV-2 NC (NCp8) and HIV-1 NC (NCp7) proteins possess two highly conserved zinc fingers, flanked by basic residues. However, the NCp8 N-terminal domain is significantly shorter and contains less positiv...
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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid (NC) protein contains 15 basic residues located throughout its 55-amino acid sequence, as well as one aromatic residue in each of its two CCHC-type zinc finger motifs. NC facilitates nucleic acid (NA) rearrangements via its chaperone activity, but the structural basis for this activity and its consequences in vivo are not completely understood. Here, we investigate the role played by basic residues in the N-terminal domain, the N-termi...
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#2Fei GuoH-Index: 5
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and the largely,if not entirely (depending on the RNA model used), single-stranded PBS sequences together, which is probably facilitatedprimarily by the basic amino acids flanking the first zinc finger.Other roles, which may be facilitated by the zinc fingers, maybe to both denature double-stranded RNA regions in viralRNA involved in annealing (such as the primer activationsignal), and/or alter RNA conformation to make such regionsmore available for annealing. Smaller effects on the rate ofannealing...