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Some empirical parameters of formal thinking

Published on Jun 1, 1973in Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3.25
· DOI :10.1007/BF02214093
Robert J. Ross2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Mississippi State University)
Sixty-five undergraduates were tested on five formal thinking tasks and the verbal and figural sections of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. The percentage of students operating at the formal level for three of the four ordinally scored formal problems was significantly above the 50% figure usually reported with a more intellectually representative sample of adolescents. It was suggested that the norms developed by Piaget for formal tasks were more suitable for a cognitively superior population. The low intercorrelations between formal tasks were reflected by the failure of a unified factor of the formal operations to emerge. The superior male performance on formal tasks was interpreted in terms of a social role hypothesis and the limited scientific subject matter of the problems.
  • References (18)
  • Citations (20)
Published on Jan 1, 1972in Developmental Psychology 2.93
C. Tomlinson-Keasey1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Rutgers University)
72 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1972in Human Development 1.67
Jean Piaget96
Estimated H-index: 96
Growing out of a child’s cognitive developmental history, formal operations become established at Cognitive development about the age of 12–15 years. Reflected in his ability to reason Adolescence hypothetically and independently on concrete states of affairs, these structures may be represented by reference to Logic combinatorial systems and to 4-groups. The essence of the Environmental differences logic of cultured adults and the basis for elementary scientific Individual differences thought a...
1,249 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1971in Child Development 3.78
R. P. Tisher1
Estimated H-index: 1
TIsHER, R. P. A Piagetian Questionnaire Applied to Pupils in a Secondary School. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1971, 42, 1633-1636. This brief statement contains the report of a successful use of a Piagetian, pencil-and-paper questionnaire with 232 junior high pupils. Indications of the successful application of the instrument were: (a) findings which agreed with those of other workers, and (b) a 77% agreement in classification between conversation-interview and questionnaire techniques.
29 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 4, 1971
Ann Higgins-Trenk1
Estimated H-index: 1
A. J. H. Gaite1
Estimated H-index: 1
16 Citations
Published on Jun 1, 1970in Journal of Genetic Psychology 0.92
Edith D. Neimark4
Estimated H-index: 4
In an attempt to evaluate Intercorrelations among tasks presumed to measure development of formal operations thought, sixtyrone fourth, fifth, and sixth graders were given three tasks in two sessions. The tasks were a diagnostic problemisolving task, PS, and two of Inhelder and Plaget's taiks: combinations of colored and colorless chemical bodies, CH, and correlations, CO. A low but consistent end significant correlation was obtained between PS end CO; CH correlated with neither. Maul:, were int...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1970
George Shouksmith1
Estimated H-index: 1
36 Citations
Published on Mar 1, 1969in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
T. W. Field3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of New England (Australia)),
Arthur J. Cropley28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Saskatchewan)
21 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1968in American Educational Research Journal 2.46
Kenneth M. Warwick1
Estimated H-index: 1
Donald J. Veldman15
Estimated H-index: 15
534 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1967in British Journal of Educational Psychology 2.06
K. Lovell9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Leeds),
J. B. Shields1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Leeds)
Summary. This paper reports on selected aspects of a study of fifty 8 to 10-year-old pupils all of whom obtained a WISC Verbal Score of 140 or more. Four issues are dealt with in connection with these gifted pupils: personality, mathematical attainment, logical thought, and the relationship between scores obtained on creativity tests and those obtained on the WISC Scales and on tests of logical thinking. The findings suggest that their teachers rated their personalities very much as American tea...
31 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1966in Child Development 3.78
David Elkind27
Estimated H-index: 27
32 children and 32 adolescents were tested for their ability to shift from a functional to a perceptual and from a positive- to a negative-similarity orientation in the course of a concept-attainment task. Results showed that the adolescents were significantly more successful in both types of shift, although the similarity shift was more dificult than the level shift for both age groups. The results of this preliminary investigation were interpreted as suggesting that the thought of the adolesce...
18 Citations Source Cite
Cited By20
Published on Jul 4, 2014in Journal of Educational Research 1.24
C. Owen lo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of British Columbia)
Using a realist grounded theory method, this study resulted in a theoretical model and 4 propositions. As displayed in the LINK model, the labeling practice is situated in and endorsed by a social context that carries explicit theory about and educational policies regarding the labels. Taking a developmental perspective, the labeling practice often results in some short-lived emotional responses and triggers an implicit theory--generating process that results in gradually formatted self-knowledg...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1989in Creativity Research Journal 0.89
Michael D. Mumford63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Georgia Institute of Technology),
Michele I. Mobley4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Lumsden and Findlay (1988) presented a sociobiological model concerned with the ontogeny of the creative act and its potential influences on geneculture coevolution. In reviewing the content and implications of this model, we found that it is consistent with certain aspects of the creative process, and that it suggests several promising new research avenues. When the ongoing debate concerning biological and cultural determinants of human behavior was considered, however, we came to the...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1988in Higher Education Research & Development 2.01
Janet Gail Donald9
Estimated H-index: 9
(McGill University)
ABSTRACT Recent evaluations of the state of higher education have suggested that students must not only learn subject matter content but must be able to think with it. Professors in tertiary education expect that their students will come equipped to handle certain kinds of information and certain kinds of learning tasks. To describe their expectations, faculty use phrases such as the ability to think logically, or to do independent work, or to use abstract terms. But to what extent do they suppo...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1988in Psychological Bulletin 13.25
Michael D. Mumford63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Georgia Institute of Technology),
Sigrid B. Gustafson6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Stockholm University)
Apres une definition du concept de creativite est effectuee une revue de la litterature consacree au developpement de l'innovation dans la reussite professionnelle, mettant l'accent sur l'integration et la reorganisation des structures cognitives
1,072 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 30, 1987in Canadian Journal of Higher Education
Dianne Bateman1
Estimated H-index: 1
Janet Gail Donald9
Estimated H-index: 9
An analysis of the distribution of Killam Research Fellowships awarded by Canada Council over a seventeen-year period reveals a pattern which is examined in relation to the distribution of applications from universities. The existing situation is discussed with reference to previous studies of peer review systems and to implications for Canadian research. Encouragement of increased participation across Canada is suggested as one possible concern for Canada Council policy.
7 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1986
Serge Larivée8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Université de Montréal)
Largement utilisee en statistiques, la notion de correlation a aussi ete etudiee dans le cadre des travaux de l’ecole genevoise sur la pensee formelle. Dans un premier temps, on presente la position piagetienne sur la genese de la comprehension de la notion de correlation chez l’adolescent. Dans un second temps, on passe en revue les etudes qui ont repris les experiences de Piaget. Cette recension des ecrits met en evidence la complexite du scheme des correlations et le peu de sujets impliques d...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 1985in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Arizona State University)
A central purpose of education is to improve students' reasoning abilities. The present review examines research in developmental psychology and science education that has attempted to assess the validity of Piaget's theory of formal thought and its relation to educational practice. Should a central objective of schools be to help students become formal thinkers? To answer this question research has focused on the following subordinate questions: (1) What role does biological maturation play in ...
174 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1985in Educational Studies in Mathematics 1.10
Francoise Tourniaire3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of California, Berkeley),
Steven Pulos11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of California, Berkeley)
This paper presents a review of the research on proportional reasoning. Methodologies used in proportional reasoning studies are presented first. The discussion is then organized around the following topics: strategies use to solve proportion problems, including erroneous strategies; factors that influence performance on proportion problems, both task-related and subject-related; training studies. The discussion is accompanied by suggestions for educational and research applications.
193 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1985in Canadian Journal of Higher Education
M. Rai Kapoor2
Estimated H-index: 2
K. Hung Chan1
Estimated H-index: 1
The knowledge era has placed new demands on professors and students to analyze and organize information. The intellectual skills required to do this have theoretical forerunners in critical thinking, problem solving, formal operations and creativity. These approaches to intellectual skills are reviewed as well as more recent metacognitive and cognitive approaches. Attempts to teach these skills suggest that they have certain operations in common. A model of intellectual skills is presented which...
18 Citations