The moving rubber hand illusion revisited: Comparing movements and visuotactile stimulation to induce illusory ownership

Published on May 1, 2014in Consciousness and Cognition1.85
· DOI :10.1016/j.concog.2014.02.003
Andreas Kalckert7
Estimated H-index: 7
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
H. Henrik Ehrsson15
Estimated H-index: 15
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
Abstract The rubber hand illusion is a perceptual illusion in which a model hand is experienced as part of one’s own body. In the present study we directly compared the classical illusion, based on visuotactile stimulation, with a rubber hand illusion based on active and passive movements. We examined the question of which combinations of sensory and motor cues are the most potent in inducing the illusion by subjective ratings and an objective measure (proprioceptive drift). In particular, we were interested in whether the combination of afferent and efferent signals in active movements results in the same illusion as in the purely passive modes. Our results show that the illusion is equally strong in all three cases. This demonstrates that different combinations of sensory input can lead to a very similar phenomenological experience and indicates that the illusion can be induced by any combination of multisensory information.
  • References (65)
  • Citations (101)
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Experimental Brain Research1.88
Martin Riemer8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UMA: University of Mannheim),
Dieter Kleinböhl12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UMA: University of Mannheim)
+ 1 AuthorsJörg Trojan13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Heidelberg University)
Voluntary motor control over artificial hands has been shown to provoke a subjective incorporation of the artificial limb into body representations. However, in most studies projected or mirrored images of own hands were presented as ‘artificial’ body parts. Using the paradigm of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), we assessed the impact of tactile sensations and voluntary movements with respect to an unambiguously body-extraneous, artificial hand. In addition to phenomenal self-reports and pointing...
Published on Jul 26, 2013in Journal of Visualized Experiments1.11
Regine Zopf10
Estimated H-index: 10
Greg Savage25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Macquarie University),
Mark A. Williams69
Estimated H-index: 69
(Macquarie University)
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a popular experimental paradigm. Participants view touch on an artificial rubber hand while the participants' own hidden hand is touched. If the viewed and felt touches are given at the same time then this is sufficient to induce the compelling experience that the rubber hand is one's own hand. The RHI can be used to investigate exactly how the brain constructs distinct body representations for one's own body. Such representations are crucial for successful inte...
Published on Oct 17, 2012in The Journal of Neuroscience6.07
Claudio Brozzoli19
Estimated H-index: 19
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Giovanni Gentile10
Estimated H-index: 10
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
H. Henrik Ehrsson35
Estimated H-index: 35
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
The ability to identify and localize our own limbs is crucial for survival. Indeed, the majority of our interactions with objects occur within the space surrounding the hands. In non-human primates, neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor cortices dynamically represent the space near the upper limbs in hand-centered coordinates. Neuronal populations selective for the space near the hand also exist in humans. It is unclear whether these remap the peri-hand representation as the arm is move...
Published on Oct 8, 2012
Alexander J. Mussap15
Estimated H-index: 15
Nancy Salton2
Estimated H-index: 2
Published on Oct 1, 2012in Acta Psychologica1.59
A Antal Haans11
Estimated H-index: 11
(TU/e: Eindhoven University of Technology),
Florian G. Kaiser36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
+ 1 AuthorsWa Wijnand IJsselsteijn45
Estimated H-index: 45
(TU/e: Eindhoven University of Technology)
article i nfo Can we assess individual differences in the extent to which a person perceives the rubber-hand illusion on the basis of self-reported experiences? In this research, we develop such an instrument using Rasch-type models. In our conception, incorporating an object (e.g., a rubber hand) into one's body image requires var- ious sensorimotor and cognitive processes. The extent to which people can meet these requirements thus de- termines how intensely people experience and, simultaneous...
Published on Oct 1, 2012in Physiological Reviews24.25
Uwe Proske54
Estimated H-index: 54
Simon C. Gandevia102
Estimated H-index: 102
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
This is a review of the proprioceptive senses generated as a result of our own actions. They include the senses of position and movement of our limbs and trunk, the sense of effort, the sense of force, and the sense of heaviness. Receptors involved in proprioception are located in skin, muscles, and joints. Information about limb position and movement is not generated by individual receptors, but by populations of afferents. Afferent signals generated during a movement are processed to code for ...
Published on Sep 7, 2012
Nobuhiro Hagura5
Estimated H-index: 5
Satoshi Hirose5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 1 AuthorsEiichi Naito2
Estimated H-index: 2
When confronted with complex visual scenes in daily life, how do we know which visual information represents our own hand? We investigated the cues used to assign visual information to one's own hand. Wrist tendon vibration elicits an illusory sensation of wrist movement. The intensity of this illusion attenuates when the actual motionless hand is visually presented. Testing what kind of visual stimuli attenuate this illusion will elucidate factors contributing to visual detection of one's own h...
Published on Aug 1, 2012in Nature Reviews Neuroscience33.16
Olaf Blanke50
Estimated H-index: 50
Recent research has linked bodily self-consciousness to the processing and integration of multisensory bodily signals in temporoparietal, premotor, posterior parietal and extrastriate cortices. Studies in which subjects receive ambiguous multisensory information about the location and appearance of their own body have shown that these brain areas reflect the conscious experience of identifying with the body (self-identification (also known as body-ownership)), the experience of where 'I' am in s...
Published on May 1, 2012in Current Biology9.19
Patrick Haggard78
Estimated H-index: 78
(UCL: University College London),
Valérian Chambon12
Estimated H-index: 12
('ENS Paris': École Normale Supérieure)
What is the sense of agency? The term ‘sense of agency’ refers to the experience of controlling one's own actions, and, through them, events in the outside world. Most of us have the feeling that we are in control of what we are doing most of the time: this is the normal sense of agency.
Published on May 1, 2012in Brain Research2.93
Robin Bekrater-Bodmann9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Heidelberg University),
Jens Foell11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Heidelberg University)
+ 1 AuthorsHerta Flor84
Estimated H-index: 84
(Heidelberg University)
Abstract The rubber hand illusion (RHI) offers the opportunity to systematically manipulate the experience of embodiment, which is here used to describe the subjective integration of an external object into one's body representation. Among the cortical regions involved in the processing of body perception, the ventral premotor cortex seems to be crucial in the integration of visuotactile stimuli. However, it is not known if the perceived vividness of the RHI is a trait or a state variable. In th...
Cited By101
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
Mohamad Arif Fahmi Ismail1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Meiji University),
Sotaro Shimada10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Meiji University)
The robot hand illusion (RoHI) is the perception of self-ownership and self-agency of a virtual (robot) hand that moves consistently with one’s own. The phenomenon shows that self-attribution can be established via temporal integration of visual and movement information. Our previous study showed that participants felt significantly greater RoHI (sense of self-ownership and sense of self-agency) when visuomotor temporal discrepancies were less than 200 ms. A weaker RoHI effect (sense of self-age...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
J. Ventre-Dominey (UCBL: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1), G. Gibert (UCBL: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1)+ 3 AuthorsFrancesco Pavani30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Trento)
Recent studies have shown how embodiment induced by multisensory bodily interactions between individuals can positively change social attitudes (closeness, empathy, racial biases). Here we use a simple neuroscience-inspired procedure to beam our human subjects into one of two distinct robots and demonstrate how this can readily increase acceptability and social closeness to that robot. Participants wore a Head Mounted Display tracking their head movements and displaying the 3D visual scene taken...
Published on 2019in Frontiers in Psychiatry3.16
Mark Carey3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Ebor: University of York),
Catherine Preston13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Ebor: University of York)
Body image disturbance has been highlighted as a common characteristic within the development and maintenance of clinical eating disorders (EDs), represented by alterations in an individual’s bodily experience. However, whilst the perceptual stability of the sense of body ownership has been investigated in ED patients, the stability of the sense of body agency in those with ED is yet to be examined. Therefore, body ownership and body agency were investigated using the moving rubber hand illusion...
Published on Sep 7, 2019in Experimental Brain Research1.88
Madhur Mangalam1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northeastern University),
Sarah A. Cutts (UGA: University of Georgia), Dorothy M. Fragaszy38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UGA: University of Georgia)
While reaching for a coffee cup, we are aware that the hand we see belongs to us and it moves at our will (reflecting our senses of ownership and agency, respectively), and that the cup is within our hand’s reach rather than beyond it (i.e., in reachable space, RS, rather than in non-reachable space, NRS). Accepted psychological explanations of our sense of ownership, sense of agency, and our perception of space surrounding the body as RS or NRS propose a unitary dependence on Euclidean distance...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews8.00
Martin Riemer8
Estimated H-index: 8
(German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Abstract The rubber hand illusion (RHI) is a widely applied paradigm to investigate changes in body representations. Extensive scientific interest has produced a great variability in the observed results and many contradictory findings have been reported. Taking into account the numerous variations in the experimental implementation of the RHI, many of these contradictive findings can be reconciled, but to date a thorough analysis of the methodological differences between RHI studies is lacking....
Published on 2019in Frontiers in Neuroscience3.65
Ivana Cuberovic (Case Western Reserve University), Anisha Gill (Providence VA Medical Center)+ 2 AuthorsEmily L. Graczyk3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Case Western Reserve University)
Upper limb prostheses are specialized tools, and skilled operation is learned by amputees over time. Recently, neural prostheses using implanted peripheral nerve interfaces have enabled advances in artificial somatosensory feedback that can improve prosthesis outcomes. However, the effect of sensory learning on artificial somatosensation has not been studied, despite its known influence on intact somatosensation and analogous neuroprostheses. Sensory learning involves changes in the perception a...
Published on Jul 1, 2019
Bouke N. Krom , Milene Catoire + 2 AuthorsJan B. F. van Erp28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UT: University of Twente)
In this study we investigated body ownership over a virtual hand and arm as a function of their visual appearance (likeness) and synchronicity of visuo-tactile stimulation with a virtual electric toothbrush and a vibrotactile glove. In all conditions, participants controlled the movement of arm and fingers, maintaining synchronicity in motor-proprioceptive-visual signals. While the effects of varying likeness and temporal synchronicity of visual and haptic stimuli on the ownership illusion have ...
Published on May 2, 2019 in CHI (Human Factors in Computing Systems)
Dario Pittera1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Sussex),
Elia Gatti8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Sussex),
Marianna Obrist19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Sussex)
Major virtual reality (VR) companies are trying to enhance the sense of immersion in virtual environments by implementing haptic feedback in their systems (e.g., Oculus Touch). It is known that tactile stimulation adds realism to a virtual environment. In addition, when users are not limited by wearing any attachments (e.g., gloves), it is even possible to create more immersive experiences. Mid-air haptic technology provides contactless haptic feedback and offers the potential for creating such ...
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