Complementary Frameworks of Scientific Inquiry: Hypothetico-Deductive, Hypothetico-Inductive, and Observational-Inductive

Published on Jan 1, 2009in World Futures
· DOI :10.1080/02604020701845624
Farzad Mahootian1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Timothy E. Eastman4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Silver Spring Networks)
The 20th century philosophy of science began on a positivistic note. Its focal point was scientific explanation and the hypothetico-deductive (HD) framework of explanation was proposed as the standard of what is meant by “science.” HD framework, its inductive and statistical variants, and other logic-based approaches to modeling scientific explanation were developed long before the dawn of the information age. Since that time, the volume of observational data and power of high performance computing have increased by several orders of magnitude and reshaped the practice and concept of science, and indeed, the philosophy of science. A new observational-inductive (OI) framework for scientific research is emerging due to recent developments in sensors, data systems, computers, and knowledge discovery techniques. We examine the nature of these changes and their impact on the question of what is meant by “science” after discussing five examples of the OI framework, and conclude that the HD and OI frameworks are...
  • References (35)
  • Citations (18)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1 Author (C.D. Borne)
10 Citations
14 Citations
6 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Franz Riffert (University of Salzburg)H-Index: 2
#2Timothy E. Eastman (Silver Spring Networks)H-Index: 4
2 CitationsSource
#1Timothy E. Eastman (Silver Spring Networks)H-Index: 4
A new observational‐inductive framework for science is emerging due to recent developments in sensors, data systems, computers and knowledge discovery techniques. This new framework complements the standard hypothetical‐deductive model that has sometimes been held up as the standard of what is meant by “science.” The hypothetical‐deductive/inductive schemas were developed before the massive growth (by orders of magnitude) in the volume of observational data and power of high performance computin...
3 CitationsSource
#1Andreas Detlef Keiling (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 19
#2George K. Parks (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 42
Last. William Lotko (Dartmouth College)H-Index: 32
view all 8 authors...
[1] We report properties of substorm-related, globally excited Alfven waves on a temporal scale of 6 to 300 s (3.3 to 167 mHz) at geocentric distances between 5 and 6 RE. The waves were observed in the tail lobes and the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) by the Polar satellite. In each region we made the following observations: (1) The tail lobe Alfven waves started at substorm onset as determined from ground magnetometer data. Hence these ULF lobe waves can possibly be used as a new substorm i...
60 CitationsSource
#1Andreas Detlef Keiling (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 19
#2George K. Parks (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 42
Last. H. U. Frey (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 47
view all 13 authors...
[1] We report on ion beams injected into the plasma sheet boundary layer (at or near the separatrix) at distances >39 RE and up to 169 RE that bounced several times back and forth (up to three echoes) while remaining in coherent bunches before thermalizing in the central plasma sheet. These bouncing ion clusters (BIC) interacted with the far-tail current sheet with a possible curvature parameter, κ, of less than 2. The existence of these BIC shows that ion beams can interact several times nonadi...
9 CitationsSource
#1Lutz Rastatter (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 18
#2Michael Hesse (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 56
Last. Tamas I. Gombosi (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 68
view all 6 authors...
[1] This study investigates the development of the polar cap area as simulated by global magnetohydrodynamic models of the Earth's magnetosphere during the 14-16 July 2000 (Bastille Day) event. Around 1440 UT on 15 July, a magnetic cloud hit the magnetosphere and in the following hours high levels of activity in the magnetosphere and ionosphere were driven by the frequent changes in solar wind conditions. We compare the size of the polar cap (region of open magnetic field lines) as computed with...
12 CitationsSource
#1Dane Morgan (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 41
#2Gerbrand Ceder (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 104
Last. Stefano Curtarolo (Duke University)H-Index: 41
view all 3 authors...
Accurate ab initio methods for performing quantum mechanical calculations have been available for many years, but their speed, complexity and instability have generally constrained researchers to studying only a few systems at a time. However, advances in computer speed and ab initio algorithms have now created fast and robust codes, where large numbers of calculations can be performed automatically, making it possible to do high-throughput ab initio computation. High-throughput computations can...
72 CitationsSource
#1Timothy E. Eastman (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 2
#2Kirk D. Borne (GMU: George Mason University)H-Index: 22
Last. Donald M. Sawyer (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
14 CitationsSource
#2Stefaan PoedtsH-Index: 34
Part I. Plasma Physics Preliminaries: 1. Introduction 2. Elements of plasma physics 3. 'Derivation' of the macroscopic equations Part II. Basic Magnetohydrodynamics: 4. The MHD model 5. Waves and characteristics 6. Spectral theory 7. Waves and instabilities on inhomogeneous plasmas 8. Magnetic structures and dynamics 9. Cylindrical plasmas 10. Initial value problem and wave damping 11. Resonant absorption and wave heating Appendices References Index.
129 Citations
#1Adam J. Burgasser (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 65
#2Michael W. McElwain (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 13
Last. I. Neill Reid (STScI: Space Telescope Science Institute)H-Index: 57
view all 6 authors...
We present the discovery of seven new T dwarfs identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Low-resolution (R � 150) 0.8‐2.5 � m spectroscopy obtained with the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SpeX instrument reveals the characteristic H2 Oa nd CH4 bands in the spectra of these brown dwarfs. Comparison with spectral standards observed with the same instrument enables us to derive classifications of T3 to T7 for the objects in this sample. Moderate-resolution (R � 1200) near-infrared spectrosco...
166 CitationsSource
#1Christopher Potter (ARC: Ames Research Center)H-Index: 55
#2Pang-Ning Tan (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 37
Last. Vanessa Genovese (California State University, Monterey Bay)H-Index: 14
view all 7 authors...
96 CitationsSource
Cited By18
#1Burkhard Priemer (Humboldt University of Berlin)H-Index: 3
#2Katja Eilerts (Humboldt University of Berlin)H-Index: 2
Last. Annette Upmeier zu Belzen (Humboldt University of Berlin)H-Index: 7
view all 7 authors...
ABSTRACTBackground: Recent developments in STEM and computer science education put a strong emphasis on twenty-first-century skills, such as solving authentic problems. These skills typically trans...
This paper presents a personal account of the early legacy of discovery informatics, especially surrounding the first published definition of domain-independent DI. The state of DI is traced across various reference sources and the literature on the fourth paradigm of the scientific method. Observations are offered on DI, concluding that it will retain its appeal as a highly apt descriptor for research and practice activities that are inherent in our human nature.
#1Luís FarinhaH-Index: 4
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of innovation and entrepreneurship related factors on national and regional economies thus allowing for the emergence of new reflections capable of leading to increased socio-economic prosperity. Following quantitative analysis, we carry out three empirical approaches in order to examine the effects of innovation and entrepreneurship on competitiveness. In accordance with our initial study framework, we test our conceptual model of competitivene...
Internationally, learning science through investigation is promoted as a preferred pedagogical approach. Research presented takes a view that such learning depends on how teachers understand science investigation. Teachers‘ understanding of science investigation was an aspect of an interpretive case study of the phenomenon of science investigation exploring the links between learning, motivation and assessment in year 11 science. Data were collected through a population survey of year 11 science...
7 CitationsSource
#1Jennifer Kathleen Gippel (ANU: Australian National University)H-Index: 5
This paper investigates the nature of the academic field of finance as it looks in the early 21st century. Using Kuhn’s structure of scientific revolutions as a framework, the paper examines the development of the field over the last 50 years with particular emphasis on intellectual shifts in the last decade: shifts emanating from cross-disciplinary research that are manifesting in approaches at odds with the traditional rational expectations paradigm. These approaches are based on previously di...
21 CitationsSource
#1Kirk BorneH-Index: 1
11 CitationsSource
#1Kirk BorneH-Index: 1
1 CitationsSource
#1Michael A. Peters (University of Waikato)H-Index: 36
#2Tze-Chang Liu (THU: Tunghai University)H-Index: 2
Last. David J. Ondercin (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
The developments of new technologies and open resources within society have fostered the new creation of different pedagogies including what we call Open Learning Systems (OLS). This article examines the shift from esoteric to open pedagogy and the consequent changes for education and knowledge creation. Traditionally, creative and ‘free’ thinking was confined to esoteric pedagogical traditions for reasons to do with persecution and censorship.
4 CitationsSource
Is there more to Ogood scienceO than explaining novel facts? Social interaction within the scientific community plays a pivotal role in defining acceptable research. This paper develops an agent-based computational model of scientific communities to explore the connection between research outcomes and the socio-cultural environment they are constructed in. Agent-to-agent interaction is added to the notion of scientific research programs (SRPs) developed by Lakatos (1969, 1970) as an important fa...
1 CitationsSource