An unusually diverse mollusc fauna from the earliest Triassic of South China and its implications for benthic recovery after the end-Permian biotic crisis

Published on Jan 1, 2011in Geobios1.211
· DOI :10.1016/j.geobios.2010.07.004
Michael Hautmann26
Estimated H-index: 26
(UZH: University of Zurich),
Hugo Bucher40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UZH: University of Zurich)
+ 3 AuthorsAlexander Nützel24
Estimated H-index: 24
(LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
A single carbonate coquinoid lens from the Griesbachian (Early Triassic) of Shanggan, South China, yielded 11 bivalve species described in this study in addition to four gastropod and one ammonoid species reported elsewhere. This makes the Shanggan fauna one of the richest mollusc faunas from the early post-extinction interval after the end-Permian mass extinction event. Four of the present genera are long-term survivors, five are holdovers that went extinct at the end of the Griesbachian or later in the Early Triassic, and seven first appear in the Griesbachian. Three new bivalve species are described: Myalinella newelli nov. sp., Scythentolium scutigerulus nov. sp., and Eumorphotis shajingengi nov. sp. The genus Astartella, previously assumed to have vanished at the end of the Permian, is reported for the first time from the Early Triassic, which also removes Astartidae from Early Triassic Lazarus taxa. The small growth size of the Astartella specimens supports an earlier hypothesis that many of the Early Triassic Lazarus taxa did not survive in unknown refuges but were simply overlooked due to the scarcity of easily observable large-sized specimens. Ecologically, a comparatively high proportion of infaunal bivalve species (4/11) is remarkable for the early post-extinction interval, supporting the impression of a relatively advanced recovery state. Moreover, abundance-data of the bivalve-gastropod community reveal a remarkably low dominance index (D = 0.17) that is suggestive for advanced recovery and stable environmental conditions. It is proposed that the Shanggan fauna represents a late Griesbachian benthic recovery event that coincided with the appearance of similarly diverse benthic faunas in Oman and Primorye. A high proportion of genera that have previously not been reported from the Early Triassic indicate that the prevalence of poor preservation conditions is a major obstacle in identifying early phases of recovery from the greatest crisis in the history of metazoan life. The early recovery of benthic faunas reported in this study questions previous claims of a prolonged lag phase as a consequence of the extraordinary extinction magnitude or the persistence of adverse environmental conditions.
  • References (75)
  • Citations (72)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
8 Authors (Arnaud Brayard, ..., Jean Guex)
178 Citations
551 Citations
176 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1William KingH-Index: 1
139 Citations
#1Carl von LinnéH-Index: 9
3,668 Citations
#1Elke Hermann (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 9
#2Peter A. Hochuli (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 34
Last. Aamir Yaseen (Pakistan Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 6
view all 10 authors...
Latest Permian to the Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic–carbonate shelf deposits of the northern Gondwana margin have been studied in four sections (Nammal, Chhidru, Chitta–Landu, and Narmia) in the Salt Range and Surghar Range of Pakistan. Sedimentological and palynofacies patterns combined with a high resolution ammonoid based age control have been used to assess environmental changes such as sea-level change, distance from the shore, and oxygenation conditions of the sections in the afterma...
71 CitationsSource
#1Andrzej Kaim (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 19
#2Alexander Nützel (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 24
Last. Nicolas Goudemand (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 21
view all 5 authors...
An Early Triassic (Griesbachian) gastropod fauna is reported from South China (Shanggan, Guangxi) and consists of four species: Bellerophon abrekensis, Wannerispira shangganensis Kaim & Nutzel sp. nov., Naticopsis sp., and Palaeonarica guangxinensis Kaim & Nutzel sp. nov. The taxon Wannerispira Kaim & Nutzel nom. nov. replaces Pagodina Wanner non Van Beneden. This is the first report of Bellerophon abrekensis from China. Previously, it was only known from its type locality in Far East Russia. Wa...
29 CitationsSource
#1Arnaud Brayard (University of Burgundy)H-Index: 26
#2Alexander Nützel (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 24
Last. Hugo Bucher (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 40
view all 6 authors...
Size reduction in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction event has repeatedly been described for various marine organisms, including gastropods (the Lilliput effect). A Smithian gastropod assemblage from Utah, USA, reveals numerous large-sized specimens of different genera as high as 70 mm, the largest ever reported from the Early Triassic. Other gastropods reported from Serbia and Italy are also as large as 35 mm. Size frequency distributions of the studied assemblages indicate t...
60 CitationsSource
#1Henry AdamsH-Index: 4
#2Arthur AdamsH-Index: 5
180 Citations
#1Peter J. Harries (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 19
#2Paul O. Knorr (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 7
Abstract The ‘Lilliput Effect’ represents a pronounced reduction in the size of the biota associated with the aftermath of mass extinctions. Although there is empirical evidence that suggests that it may be a common pattern during the recoveries from various mass extinction events, it remains to be analyzed in more detail to understand how pervasive the trend is from temporal, spatial, and taxonomic perspectives. The ‘Lilliput Effect’ could represent dynamics associated with or important diversi...
55 CitationsSource
#1Arnaud Brayard (University of Burgundy)H-Index: 26
#2Gilles Escarguel (University of Lyon)H-Index: 31
Last. Jean Guex (UNIL: University of Lausanne)H-Index: 30
view all 8 authors...
The end-Permian mass extinction removed more than 80% of marine genera. Ammonoid cephalopods were among the organisms most affected by this crisis. The analysis of a global diversity data set of ammonoid genera covering about 106 million years centered on the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) shows that Triassic ammonoids actually reached levels of diversity higher than in the Permian less than 2 million years after the PTB. The data favor a hierarchical rather than logistic model of diversificati...
178 CitationsSource
#1Margaret L. Fraiser (UWM: University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee)H-Index: 18
#2David J. Bottjer (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 59
A regional field study of ichnocoenoses in the Griesbachian Dinwoody Formation and the Smithian Sinbad Limestone Member revealed that benthic invertebrate tracemaking populations exhibited aspects of opportunistic behaviour following the end-Permian mass extinction. This study represents the first documentation of population strategies of ichnocoenoses following a mass extinction event. These trace fossil assemblages are characterised by low-to-moderate ichnodiversity, low-to-moderate bioturbati...
47 CitationsSource
#1Thomas R. Waller (National Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 13
#2George D. Stanley (UM: University of Montana)H-Index: 5
Abstract The parautochthonous Anisian and Ladinian rocks of the New Pass Range previously referred to as the Augusta Mountain Formation have a unique, endemic assemblage of pteriomorphian bivalves with Triassic Northern Hemisphere biogeographic relationships, especially to the Carnian cratonal faunas of northeastern British Columbia as well as to Ladinian faunas of the Shoshone Mountains and the Gillis Range. A new suborder Prospondyloidina is described, as well as three new genera, Promysidiell...
36 CitationsSource
Cited By72
#1Ashraf M. T. Elewa (Minia University)H-Index: 9
#2Ahmed Awad Abdelhady (Minia University)H-Index: 9
Abstract Enigmatic catastrophic events, involving mass extinction of life forms, have been recorded several times in the Earth history. In many cases, the causes and mechanisms of these major and minor mass extinctions can be traced via the fossil record. A synthesis of the available information is herein made on the major catastrophic events through Earth history to understand the processes in the past and present with speculation into the future. The selective nature of major mass extinctions ...
2 CitationsSource
#1William J. Foster (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 10
#2Daniel J. Lehrmann (Trinity University)H-Index: 26
Last. Rowan C. Martindale (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 13
view all 7 authors...
3 CitationsSource
#1Carlo Romano (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 10
#2Thodoris Argyriou (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 5
Last. Laurel J. Krumenacker (Idaho Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
Abstract A new, diverse and complex Early Triassic assemblage was recently discovered west of the town of Paris, Idaho (Bear Lake County), USA. This assemblage has been coined the Paris Biota. Dated earliest Spathian (i.e., early late Olenekian), the Paris Biota provides further evidence that the biotic recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction was well underway ca. 1.3 million years after the event. This assemblage includes mainly invertebrates, but also vertebrate remains such as ichthyoli...
7 CitationsSource
#1Guo Shi (CUTe: China University of Technology)H-Index: 1
#2Adam D. Woods (CSUF: California State University, Fullerton)H-Index: 14
Last. Dan Qiao (CUTe: China University of Technology)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
#1Yan Chen (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 1
#2Qian Ye (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Jinling Yuan (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
Two Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) sections (Pojue and Dala) are well exposed in an isolated carbonate platform (Napo Platform) on the southwestern margin of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. These sections provide an insight into the transition across the PTB and a detailed investigation of the conodont biostratigraphy and inorganic carbon isotopes is presented. The PTB at the Pojue Section is placed at the base of Bed 10B (a dolomitized mudstone found below a microbialite horizon), defined ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Morgane Brosse (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 10
#2Hugo Bucher (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 40
Last. Michael Hautmann (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 26
view all 9 authors...
A new Early Triassic marine fauna is described from an exotic block (olistolith) from the Ad Daffah conglomerate in eastern Oman (Batain), which provides new insights into the ecology and diversity during the early aftermath of the Permian–Triassic Boundary mass extinction. Based on conodont quantitative biochronology, we assign a middle Griesbachian age to the upper part of this boulder. It was derived from an offshore seamount and yielded both nektonic and benthic faunas, including conodonts, ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Evelyn Friesenbichler (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 1
#2Michael Hautmann (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 26
Last. Hugo Bucher (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 40
view all 5 authors...
The Schlern and Seiser Alm area (South Tyrol, Italy) is a classical locality for studies of Middle Triassic platform to basin transitions, yet details of the palaeoecology of the rich benthic faunas of this area have been insufficiently known. We present herein a detailed palaeoecological study of the fauna from the Schlernplateau beds (Late Ladinian to Early Carnian) and the more or less time-equivalent Pachycardientuffe (Late Ladinian), which is based on quantitative faunal data. Both the pala...
2 CitationsSource
#1Alexander NützelH-Index: 24
#2Andrzej Kaim (PAN: Polish Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 19
Last. Eugen Grădinaru (UB: University of Bucharest)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
A new early middle Anisian (Bithynian) gastropod fauna is described from the Mahmudia quarry in North Dobrogea, Romania. At least 22 species are reported, nearly all of them from Tubiphytes-limestones which represent a microbial buildup. Twenty species from Tubiphytes-buildup limestones are characterized, ten of which in open nomenclature due to insufficient preservation. One genus (Murchisonietta gen. nov) and ten species are described as new. The new species are Euryalox applanatus, Rasatomari...
2 CitationsSource
#1Xu Dai (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 4
#2Haijun Song (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 22
Last. Li Tian (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 15
view all 8 authors...
New fossil data from two Early Triassic (Griesbachian to Dienerian) sections from South China show unusually high levels of both benthic and nektonic taxonomic richness occurring in the late Griesbachian. In total, 68 species (including 26 newly originated species) representing mollusks, brachiopods, foraminifers, conodonts, ostracods, and echinoderms occur in the late Griesbachian, indicating well-established and relatively complex marine communities. Furthermore, the nekton shows higher origin...
5 CitationsSource
#1Krzysztof R. BromH-Index: 3
Last. Mariusz A. SalamonH-Index: 14
view all 2 authors...
In its original version, Lilliput effect (LE) is defined as adaptive response of an organism to the deterioration of environmental conditions, involving after-event reduction of individuals body size in a given population. Currently, four patterns of LE are considered - preferential survival of smaller taxa (extinction of large taxa), dwarfing of taxa, miniaturization combined with additional morphological changes, and LE combined with Lazarus effect. As the main reasons underlying this phenomen...