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Effects of Time and Rate of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Application on the Growth and the Seed and Oil Yields of Canola (Brassica napus L.)

Published on Apr 22, 2001in Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science2.96
· DOI :10.1046/j.1439-037X.2001.00463.x
Mumtaz Cheema15
Estimated H-index: 15
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
M. A. Malik4
Estimated H-index: 4
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)
+ 2 AuthorsShahzad M. A. Basra25
Estimated H-index: 25
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)
Abstract
A field study was conducted to investigate the influence of variable rates of application of N and P fertilizers in splits at various times on the growth and the seed and oil yields of canola (Brassica napus L.) during 1995–97. Rates of fertilizer application were 0 and 0 (F0), 60 and 0 (F1), 0 and 30 (F2), 60 and 30 (F3), 90 and 60 (F4) and 120 and 90 (F5) kg N ha−1 and kg P2O5 ha−1. All the P was applied at sowing while N was applied in splits, i.e. all at sowing, half at sowing and half with first irrigation, or half at sowing and half at flowering. The responses of growth, seed yield and components of yield were consistent in both years. Increasing the rate of fertilizer application from F4 (90/60 kg N/P2O5 ha−1) to F5 (120/90 kg N/P2O5 ha−1) increased the leaf area index (LAI) relative to the control and to lower rates of fertilizer application. For both crops, application of 90/60 kg N/P2O5 ha−1 significantly enhanced total dry matter (TDM) and seed yield. Seed yield increased mainly due to a greater number of pods per plant and seeds per seed-pod. The time of fertilizer application did not significantly affect seed yield or components of yield in either season. Oil yield generally followed seed yield, increasing with increasing rate of fertilizer application up to 90/60 kg N/P2O5 ha−1. The maximum oil contents were obtained from the control. The results show that seed and oil yields of canola were maximized at the F4 (90/60 kg N/P2O5 ha−1) rate of application under the agro-ecological conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Reaktionen von Canola (Brassica napus L.) auf Zeit und Menge einer Stickstoff- und Phosphoranwendung hinsichtlich des Wachstums sowie des Samen- und Olertrags Es wurde eine Felduntersuchung durchgefuhrt, um den Einfluss unterschiedlicher Mengen von N- und P-Dungern in Teilanwendungen zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten auf das Wachstum sowie den Samen- und Olertrag von Canola (Brassica napus L.) wahrend der Jahre 1995 bis 1997 zu untersuchen. Es wurden Dungermengen von F0 (0–0), F1 (60–0), F2 (0–30), F3 (60–30), F4 (90–60) und F5 (120–90) kg NP2O5/ha angewendet. P wurde zum Zeitpunkt der Aussaat ausgebracht wahrend N in aufgeteilten Gaben: Gesamtgabe zur Saat, halbe Gabe zur Saat und halbe Gabe zur ersten Bewasserung sowie halbe Galbe zur Saat und halbe Gabe zur Blute ausgebracht wurden. Die Reaktion des Wachstums, des Samenertrages und der Ertragskomponenten waren fur beide Anbauzeitraume gleich. Eine Zunahme der Dungeranwendung von F4 (90–60 kg N P2O5/ha−1) auf F5 (120–90 kg N P2O5/ha−1) erhohte den Blattflachenindex (LAI) uber die Kontrolle bzw. geringere Dungeranwendungen. Fur beide Bestande erhohte eine Anwendung von 90–60 kg N P2O5 je ha signifikant die Gesamttrockenmasse (TDM) und den Samenertrag. Der Samenertrag erhohte sich im wesentlichen als Folge einer groseren Anzahl von Schoten je Pflanze und Anzahl Samen je Schote. Der Zeitpunkt der Dungeranwendung beeinflusste nichtsignifikant den Samenertrag oder die Ertragskomponenten in beiden Anbauzeitraumen. Der Olertrag folgte grundsatzlich dem Samenertrag und nahm mit einer Zunahme der Dungeranwendung von 90–60 kg N P2O5/ha−1 zu. Das Maximum des Olgehaltes wurde bei der Kontrolle festgestellt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Samen- und Olertrag von Canola von F4 (90–60 kg N P2O5/ha–1) unter den agro-okologischen Bedingungen von Faisalabad, Pakistan maximiert wird.
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