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Communicator effectiveness in producing public conformity and private attitude change

Published on Jun 1, 1965in Journal of Personality3.08
· DOI :10.1111/j.1467-6494.1965.tb01384.x
Philip G. Zimbardo9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NYU: New York University),
Matisyohu Weisenberg2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NYU: New York University)
+ 1 AuthorsBurton Levy1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yale University)
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Abstract
One of the most widely held generalizabons m social psychology IS that the efiEectiveness of a persuasive communication IS mcreased if its source is "credible " The early research by Hovland and Weiss (1951) and by Kelman and Hovland (1953) which gave substance to this conclusion has recently been extended to demonsbate the efficacy of credible communicators even when the amount of change advocated is extreme (Aronson, Tumer, & Carlsmith, 1963) Credibility has been defined traditionally m terms of communicator atbibutes which are perceived by the audience as relevant to the topic bemg communicated Two of its major components which have been experimentally manipulated are the communicator's ability and his motives for personal gam, or what Hovland, Jams, and Kelley (1953) term "expertness" and "trustworthmess," respectively However, positive and negative source baits which bear no objective relevance to the topic of the commumcabon can also be effective m modifying attitudes toward its conclusions The potent effect of such irrelevant communicator characteristics has long been utilized m pracbcal mfluence situabons outside the laboratory by lawyers aware of the miportance of
  • References (9)
  • Citations (58)
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References9
Newest
Elliot Aronson40
Estimated H-index: 40
,
Judith A. Turner1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
J. Merrill Carlsmith4
Estimated H-index: 4
The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that opinion change is a function of a specific complex interaction between the credibility of the communicator and the discrepancy of the communication from the initial attitude of the recipient. In a laboratory experiment, Ss who read a communication tha
Published on Jun 1, 1962in Journal of Personality3.08
Elliot Aronson4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Harvard University),
Burton W. Golden1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Harvard University)
A push-button-operated motor speed control circuit for use in a bidirectional speed control system for a film drive motor. The push buttons control the operation of switches for variably charging or discharging a storage capacitor which supplies a biasing potential to the gate of a field-effect transistor. The variable level of charge on the capacitor determines the amount of current passed by the FET, and variations in this current may then be used to vary the running speed of the film drive mo...
Published on Jan 24, 1961in Public Opinion Quarterly3.31
Ewart E. Smith1
Estimated H-index: 1
New and unusual foods provide an opportunity for experimenting with attitude change. Here is a report of experiments conducted with Army personnel to test the effectiveness of dissonance in inducing changes in attitude. Ewart E. Smith has been engaged in military research for a number of years on questions involving group problem solving, acceptance of new leadership, survival training, and related subjects. He is currently Research Scientist on the staff of the Los Angeles Division of the Matri...
Published on Sep 1, 1951in Psychometrika2.74
Lee J. Cronbach36
Estimated H-index: 36
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
A general formula (α) of which a special case is the Kuder-Richardson coefficient of equivalence is shown to be the mean of all split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of a test. α is therefore an estimate of the correlation between two random samples of items from a universe of items like those in the test. α is found to be an appropriate index of equivalence and, except for very short tests, of the first-factor concentration in the test. Tests divisible into distinct subtes...
Published on Jan 24, 1951in Public Opinion Quarterly3.31
Carl I. Hovland32
Estimated H-index: 32
(Yale University),
Walter Weiss2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Yale University)
A highly needled fabric is produced by treating fabric, e.g., a needled fabric having a density of at least 8 pounds per cubic foot, with a needling fluid and then needling to increase the density, e.g., to at least 12 pounds per cubic foot. The needling fluid is preferably an aqueous fluid containing a surface active agent and/or thickening agent and preferably a foam is produced during needling to aid in maintaining add-ons of needling fluid of at least 100%, e.g., 150% to 250%.
Published on Jan 1, 1949
Carl I. Hovland32
Estimated H-index: 32
,
Arthur A. Lumsdaine3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Fred D. Sheffield3
Estimated H-index: 3
Bruno Bettelheim24
Estimated H-index: 24
After three years the author reports his observations of prisoners in Dachau and Buchenwald (concentration camps) in 1938–1939. The purposes of the camps were (1) to break individuals into docile masses, (2) to terrorize and discourage group opposition to Nazism, (3) to train Gestapo men in methods
Cited By58
Newest
Published on Apr 3, 2018in Psychological Inquiry10.27
Dan Simon12
Estimated H-index: 12
(SC: University of Southern California),
Stephen J. Read32
Estimated H-index: 32
(SC: University of Southern California)
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Blake M. McKimmie14
Estimated H-index: 14
Published on Jul 3, 2015in Cambridge Review of International Affairs0.66
Kenneth Payne4
Estimated H-index: 4
('KCL': King's College London)
Why do states persist in enduring, expensive conflicts when the costs seem so high, the potential benefits, at best, somewhat ambiguous? This article suggests that emotional psychology can provide some insights into this problem. Decision-makers construct a vision of the future that is greatly informed by affect. How they feel in the present has a big impact on their conception of events and their decisions about them. The risks they are prepared to take, the desires they anticipate having in fu...
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Spanish Journal of Psychology0.75
Valérie Fointiat9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Lorraine),
Audrey Pelt1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Lorraine)
Our main purpose was to explore hypotheses derived from the Identification of Action Theory in a particular situation that is, a dissonant situation. Thus, we varied the identification (low versus high-level) of a problematic behavior (to stop speaking for 24 hours) in the forced compliance paradigm. Two modes of dissonance reduction were presented: cognitive rationalization (classical attitude-change) and behavioral rationalization (target behavior: to stop speaking for 48 hours). As predicted,...
Published on Dec 16, 2014
Nowadays a lot of employees do not know how bigger and danger the work stress that they faced in their workplace. Work stress is the one of many things that can make serious problem for every employee. Work stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when job requirements do not match the worker’s capabilities, resources, and needs. Work stress also has different levels, both in terms of job position and gender. So, the objectives of this research are influence of job posit...
Published on Jan 1, 2014
Vasily Klucharev12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Basel),
Ivan Zubarev2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Anna Shestakova16
Estimated H-index: 16
Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. We explored, with the use of various neuroimaging methods (fMRI, TMS, ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke activity of the posterior medial frontal cortex often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. Using fMRI we showed that conflicts with gr...
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Social Cognition1.25
Sara E. Brady2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Charles G. Lord23
Estimated H-index: 23
Previous research has shown that what we tell other people can impair accurate memory for what actually happened, and that tailoring descriptions of an event or person to an audience's known preferences can alter subsequent memory for ambiguous information—an effect that is more pronounced when people are more rather than less motivated to create a shared reality with the audience. The present studies investigated whether motives to impress an opposite-sex other might moderate memory for one's o...
Published on Jun 1, 2013in Current Opinion in Neurobiology6.01
Keise Izuma15
Estimated H-index: 15
(California Institute of Technology)
Human attitudes and preferences are susceptible to social influence. Recent social neuroscience studies, using theories and experimental paradigms from social psychology, have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying how others influence our attitudes through processes such as social conformity, cognitive inconsistency and persuasion. The currently available evidence highlights the role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive inconsistency, whi...
Published on Apr 1, 2013in Health Education & Behavior2.19
Hilary F. Byrnes12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Brenda A. Miller25
Estimated H-index: 25
,
Nicole Laborde1
Estimated H-index: 1
Self-determination theory and substantial research findings suggest that more desirable outcomes may occur when participants are able to choose their prevention or treatment interventions, as having a choice may lead to greater motivation and feelings of self-efficacy. The present study examined the influence of having a choice of family-based prevention programs for youth alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use on mothers’ communication outcomes. Families (N = 496) were those with an 11- to 12-yea...