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AUTOMATED DATA ANALYSIS FOR CONSECUTIVE IMAGES FROM DROPLET COMBUSTION EXPERIMENTS

Published on Sep 5, 2012in Image Analysis & Stereology 1.78
· DOI :10.5566/ias.v31.p137-148
Christopher Dembia6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Cornell University),
Yu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Cornell University),
C. Thomas Avedisian14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Cornell University)
Cite
Abstract
A simple automated image analysis algorithm has been developed that processes consecutive images from high speed, high resolution digital images of burning fuel droplets. The droplets burn under conditions that promote spherical symmetry. The algorithm performs the tasks of edge detection of the droplet’s boundary using a grayscale intensity threshold, and shape fitting either a circle or ellipse to the droplet’s boundary. The results are compared to manual measurements of droplet diameters done with commercial software. Results show that it is possible to automate data analysis for consecutive droplet burning images even in the presence of a significant amount of noise from soot formation. An adaptive grayscale intensity threshold provides the ability to extract droplet diameters for the wide range of noise encountered. In instances where soot blocks portions of the droplet, the algorithm manages to provide accurate measurements if a circle fit is used instead of an ellipse fit, as an ellipse can be too accommodating to the disturbance.
  • References (13)
  • Citations (16)
Cite
References13
Newest
Published on Aug 1, 2010in Combustion and Flame 4.12
Michael C. Hicks8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Glenn Research Center),
Vedha Nayagam13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Glenn Research Center),
Forman A. Williams48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Diffusive extinction of methanol droplets with initial diameters between 1.25 mm and 1.72 mm, burning in a quiescent microgravity environment at one atmosphere pressure, was obtained experimentally for varying levels of ambient carbon-dioxide concentrations with a fixed oxygen concentration of 21% and a balance of nitrogen. These experiments serve as precursors to those which are beginning to be performed on the International Space Station and are motivated by the need to understand the effectiv...
Published on Jan 1, 2009
J.H. Bae1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Cornell University),
C.T. Avedisian24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Cornell University)
Abstract The burning and extinction characteristics of isolated small nonane droplets are examined in a buoyant convective environment and in an environment with no external axial convection (as created by doing experiments at low gravity) to promote spherical droplet flames. The ambience is air and a mixture of 30%O 2 /70%He to assess the influence of soot formation. The initial droplet diameter ( D o ) ranges from 0.4 to 0.95 mm. Measurements are reported of the extinction diameter and time to...
Published on Jun 4, 2008
Mun Young Choi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Princeton University),
Fredrick L. Dryer3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Princeton University)
+ 1 AuthorsMike H. Brace1
Estimated H-index: 1
This paper presents recent results from a continuing study on the burning characteristics of pure, single component fuel droplets in a microgravity environment. A new, economical, microprocessor‐based, computer imaging and data analysis method for determining the diameter and the position of the burning droplet from photographic records is described and demonstrated using experimental data previously obtained on the combustion of n‐decane droplets in air. Initial observations on the combustion o...
Published on Apr 1, 2004in Combustion and Flame 4.12
J.H. Bae2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Cornell University),
C.T. Avedisian24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Cornell University)
Abstract Combustion of stationary JP8 fuel droplets mixed with additives is examined in a low gravity environment to reduce the influence of convection and promote spherical droplet flames. Both qualitative information on flame structure and sooting tendencies and quantitative information on evaporation rates and flame and soot shell diameters are reported. The additives were hexanol (C 6 H 14 O) and a commercial blend of a detergent/dispersant termed “+100” that is widely used as an additive in...
Published on Jul 1, 2000in Journal of Propulsion and Power 1.80
C. Thomas Avedisian14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Cornell University)
Recent developments pertaining to the spherically symmetric combustion of sooting fuels are discussed. The spherical droplet e ameis well suited forstudying soot formation in droplet combustion because ofthesimplicity of thetransportprocessthatresultsfromaone-dimensionalcombustionprocess.Recentadvancesinnewexperimental designs for forming and deploying droplets in a low-buoyancy environment are revealing effects that have gone unnoticed in early experimental studies. These include soot’ s ine ue...
Published on May 2, 2008
Ioannis Pitas66
Estimated H-index: 66
From the Publisher: Digital data acquired by scanners, radar systems, and digital cameras are typically computer processed to produce images through digital image processing. Through various techniques employing image processing algorithms, digital images can be enhanced for viewing and human interpretation. This book provides readers with a complete library of algorithms for digital image processing, coding, and analysis. Reviewing all facets of the technology, it is supplemented with an ftp si...
Andrew W. Fitzgibbon54
Estimated H-index: 54
(University of Oxford),
Maurizio Pilu17
Estimated H-index: 17
(HP: Hewlett-Packard),
Robert B. Fisher41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh)
This work presents a new efficient method for fitting ellipses to scattered data. Previous algorithms either fitted general conics or were computationally expensive. By minimizing the algebraic distance subject to the constraint 4ac-b/sup 2/=1, the new method incorporates the ellipticity constraint into the normalization factor. The proposed method combines several advantages: It is ellipse-specific, so that even bad data will always return an ellipse. It can be solved naturally by a generalized...
Published on Jan 1, 1998
R. Halir1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Charles University in Prague)
This paper presents a numerically stable non-iterative algorithm for fitting an ellipse to a set of data points. The approach is based on a least squares minimization and it guarantees an ellipse-specific solution even for scattered or noisy data. The optimal solution is computed directly, no iterations are required. This leads to a simple, stable and robust fitting method which can be easily implemented. The proposed algorithm has no computational ambiguity and it is able to fit more than 100,0...
Published on Jan 1, 1996
Daniel L. Dietrich13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
John B. Haggard5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 3 AuthorsForman A. Williams48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Individual droplets with diameters ranging from about 2 mm to 5 mm were burned under microgravity conditions in air at 1 bar with an ambient temperature of 300 K. Each droplet was tethered by a silicon carbide fiber of 80 μm or 150 μm diameter to keep it in view of video recording, and, in some tests, a forced air flow was applied in a direction parallel to the fiber axis. Methanol, two methanol-water mixtures, two methanol-dodecanol mixtures, and two heptane-hexadecane mixtures were the fuels. ...
Published on Jan 1, 1996
Mun Young Choi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
Lee Kyeong-Okk1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
This investigation describes experiments performed at the 2.2-s microgravity facility at NASA-Lewis Research Center using n -heptane droplets burning in atmospheric pressure air. The transient soot distributions within the region bounded by the droplet surface and the flame were measured using a full-field light-extinction technique and subsequent tomographic inversion using Abel transforms. It has been speculated that under microgravity conditions, the absence of buoyancy and the effects of the...
Cited By16
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Tanvir Farouk17
Estimated H-index: 17
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Yuhao Xu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsFrederick L. Dryer66
Estimated H-index: 66
(Princeton University)
Abstract We report experiments and detailed numerical modeling of mixtures of primary reference fuel (PRF) droplets consisting of n -heptane and iso -octane with initial droplet diameters of 0.5 and 3.51 mm. The results show a quasi-steady, low temperature (or “Cool Flame” ( CF )) droplet burning mode that stems from a varying two-stage chemical kinetic behavior of the combustion chemistry. The simulations further illustrate, that the CF droplet burning mode in 1 atm air is dependent upon the is...
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Yuhao Xu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Cornell University),
Michael C. Hicks8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Glenn Research Center),
C. Thomas Avedisian14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Cornell University)
Abstract The burning characteristics of iso -octane droplets in the standard atmosphere are reported over a large range of initial droplet diameters (0.5 mm D o 5 mm) for near one-dimensional droplet flames as promoted by low gravity. A ground-based drop tower and a space-based platform (International Space Station) were used to provide an environment to examine the influence of D o that encompasses regimes where radiation does not have an effect on burning to where it does. For D o K ) was near...
Published on Sep 1, 2016in Combustion and Flame 4.12
Yu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UM: University of Michigan),
Yuhao Xu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsC. Thomas Avedisian14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Cornell University)
Abstract This paper reports the results of a comprehensive experimental study on the effect of initial droplet diameter ( D o ) over a very wide range (0.5 mm D o n -heptane, n -octane and n -decane – that are representative of components found in petroleum-based transportation fuels and their surrogates. Spherical symmetry in the burning process was promoted by carrying out the experiments in a reduced convection (stagnant ambience) and buoyancy (low gravity) environment using the facilities of...
Published on Jul 7, 2016in Applied Mechanics Reviews 6.14
Ann Karagozian22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
Published on Jul 1, 2016in Combustion and Flame 4.12
Yu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UM: University of Michigan),
Fahd E. Alam4
Estimated H-index: 4
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 3 AuthorsTanvir I. Farouk4
Estimated H-index: 4
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Abstract This study reports results of experiments on the isolated droplet burning characteristics of butanol isomers ( n -, iso -, sec -, and tert -) under standard atmosphere conditions in an environment that promotes spherical combustion. The data are compared with predictions from a detailed numerical model (DNM) that incorporates complex combustion chemistry, radiative heat transfer, temperature dependent variable fluid properties, and unsteady gas and liquid transport. Computational predic...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Fuel 5.13
Yuhao Xu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Cornell University),
Ivan Keresztes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Cornell University)
+ 3 AuthorsC. Thomas Avedisian14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Cornell University)
Abstract Fuels derived from bio-feedstocks have received significant attention for their potential to reduce the consumption of petroleum-based liquid fuels, either through blending or direct use. Biofuels produced from heterotrophic microalgae are particularly attractive because of fast conversion of sustainable plant sugars into renewable oils of controllable quality and composition, but without the need for sunlight or carbon from the atmosphere for growth. This paper describes the results of...
Published on Jun 1, 2015in Fuel 5.13
Mingming Zhu15
Estimated H-index: 15
,
Yu Ma8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 2 AuthorsDongke Zhang36
Estimated H-index: 36
Abstract The effect of methyl oleate and ethanol addition on the combustion characteristics and soot emission of single droplets of diesel was studied by means of experimentation and kinetic modelling. The experiments were performed using a high-temperature tube furnace operating at 973 K and the soot intensity indicated by the soot KL factor, and flame temperature were simultaneously measured using a two-colour pyrometry technique and a colour CCD camera. A detailed chemical kinetic calculation...
Published on May 21, 2015in Energy & Fuels 3.02
Yuhao Xu7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
C. Thomas Avedisian14
Estimated H-index: 14
Fuels derived from biofeedstocks are receiving attention for their potential as additives to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Normal butanol, in particular, can enhance performance compared to ethanol because of its higher energy density. To better understand the combustion dynamics of n-butanol in the context of gasoline, experiments are reported here to examine the isolated droplet combustion characteristics of an 87 octane (ethanol-free) gasoline and a mixture of gasoline (0...
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Fahd E. Alam4
Estimated H-index: 4
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Yu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Cornell University)
+ 2 AuthorsTanvir I. Farouk4
Estimated H-index: 4
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Abstract Recent interest in alternative and bio-derived fuels has emphasized butanol over ethanol as a result of its higher energy density, lower vapor pressure and more favorable gasoline blending properties. Numerous efforts have examined the combustion of butanol from the perspective of low dimensional gas-phase transport configurations that facilitate modeling and validation of combustion kinetics. However, fewer studies have focused on multiphase butanol combustion, and none have appeared o...
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Yu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Cornell University),
Yuhao Xu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsMichael C. Hicks8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Glenn Research Center)
Abstract This study reports experimental evidence of gas phase micro-convection induced by support fibers used in droplet combustion experimentation. Soot aggregates formed during combustion of n-octane and n-decane droplets (initial diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 5 mm) provide natural seeds to reveal the thermal and flow asymmetries involved. The experiments are carried out in an environment that reduces the influence of forced and buoyant convection for both free-floating (unsupported) and f...