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Regular and irregular growth and dissolution of (101) ADP faces under low supersaturations

Published on Oct 1, 1988in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
· DOI :10.1016/0022-0248(88)90028-0
A.A. Chernov1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
A.I. Malkin1
Estimated H-index: 1
Cite
Abstract
Abstract A technique has been developed to automatically measure normal growth rates as low as 3 × 10 -9 cm/s and higher, the tangential growth rates and hillock slopes. The method was applied to the (101) ADP growth in the kinetic regime at various supersaturations 0.05% σ ⋍ 8.5 × 10 −7 erg/cm (corresponding to the surface energy of 16 erg/cm 2 ), and the step kinetic coefficient (i.e. the rate of incorporation at the steps), ⋍ 0.3 cm/s. The rates of growth (incorporation) and dissolution at steps were found to be nearly equal, whereas the dissolution rates at dislocations exceed the growth rates by up to 3 times. This effect is considered as evidence of a stress field around a dislocation. At supersaturations σ ∗ = 0.25% and pH =3.6, the growth stopped completely. At 0.25% σ σ > 0.35%, regular growth were observed. Increase in pH results in a shift of these supersaturation ranges to lower values. After an exposure at σ ∗ , the not-growing face became poisoned: when, after the exposure, the supersaturation is raised to a value σ > σ ∗ , the face still does not grow for several minutes. If this new value σ > σ ∗ is high enough, the growth sta immediately. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of stoppers previnting propagation of steps (Cabrera-Vermilyea mechanism). The minimal supersaturation above which the growth starts is a direct function of the exposure duration and allowed us to estimate the surface density of stoppers and their adsorption isotherm.
  • References (14)
  • Citations (38)
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References14
Newest
Published on May 4, 2007in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology
J. W. Mullin17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UCL: University College London),
A. Amatavivadhana2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCL: University College London)
Growth rates of ammonium- and potassium-dihydrogen phosphate crystal faces have been measured in a simple laboratory apparatus under carefully controlled conditions of temperature, supersaturation and solution velocity. The growth process, which was found to be second-order with respect to the supersaturation, is considered to be controlled by surface reaction. Growth rates of the ammonium salt (ADP) are much higher than those of the potassium-salt (KDP) under equivalent conditions. It is sugges...
Published on Sep 1, 1987in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
A.A. Chernov5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
L. N. Rashkovich17
Estimated H-index: 17
(MSU: Moscow State University)
Abstract The classical theory of layer-spiral growth of crystals [1,2] proceeds from the linear dependence of the velocity of step motion v on relative supersaturation σ. In the present work, contrary to earlier studies on ADP [3,4], we have observed a nonlinear v (σ) dependence and a nonmonotonic p (σ) dependence of the growth hillock slope, and we suggest the corresponding theory of spiral growth.
Published on Jan 1, 1986in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
A.A. Chernov5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
L. N. Rashkovich17
Estimated H-index: 17
(MSU: Moscow State University),
A.A. Mkrtchan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MSU: Moscow State University)
Abstract Laser Michelson interferometry has been applied to in situ study the (001) ADP growth kinetics in aqueous solution in the kinetic regime. The technique allows one to simultaneously measure the slope p of a growth hillock and normal growth rate R provided by this hillock. From these data, the average step growth rate v = R / p has been determined as a function of relative supersaturation σ. The dependence v (σ) is found to be linear, demonstrating the unimportance of surface and bulk dif...
Published on Sep 1, 1983in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
K. Tsukamoto16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Tohoku University),
H. Ohba1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Tohoku University),
Ichiro Sunagawa27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Tohoku University)
Abstract Growth of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 crystals were investigated by measuring the growth rate of (111) faces ex situ, followed by measuring the slope angle of spiral hillocks by means of interferometries. Although growth rate versus supersaturation showed a linear relation, the dependence of slope angle of hillocks upon supersaturation was found to deviate from the BCF theory. Especially when the supersaturation was medium, from 1% to 3%, the slope angle of spiral hillocks decreased upon increasing the...
Published on Aug 1, 1983in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
L.A.M.J. Jetten3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
B. van der Hoek9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
W.J.P. van Enckevort29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
Abstract The surface morphologies of the {010} face of potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals, growing in an aqueous solution, have been studied in situ by means of optical reflection microscopy. The observations have been recorded by means of a videosystem. Several phenomena have been investigated by this method, namely: spiral growth via high (10–250 nm) and low steps (2.8–10 nm), step acceleration near reentrant corners in step patterns, inclusion formation via step overhangs, the formation of...
Published on Mar 1, 1983in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
B. van der Hoek9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CUA: The Catholic University of America),
W. Vanenckevort15
Estimated H-index: 15
(CUA: The Catholic University of America),
W.H. Van Der Linden5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CUA: The Catholic University of America)
Abstract The dissolution process of the {111} faces of potash alum is studied, both by microtopographic examinations of the etch pit patterns and by measurement of the dissolution kinetics in a rotating disc crystallizer. Both methods showed that the Cabrera-Levine dissolution theory holds for the two most common dislocation types ending on the {111} faces of potash alum. On the basis of the rotating disc experiments, the interfacial supersaturation of the etch pit experiments was roughly estima...
Published on Feb 1, 1982in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
B. van der Hoek9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
J. Vandereerden19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
P. Bennema27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
Abstract A general stress function for screw or edge dislocations is presented and discussed. Upon introducing this stress function into a formalism to check the stability of hollow cores around dislocations, it turns out that several cases can be distinguished. If the stress field is strong enough there may or may not exist a thermodynamical stable hollow core, depending on the driving force. Above a critical super- or undersaturation Δμ ∗ 1 the hollow core will be closed, below a critical unde...
Published on Apr 1, 1980in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
W. Van Erk7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Philips),
H.J.G.J. Van Hoek-Martens1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Philips),
G. Bartels9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Philips)
Abstract The growth kinetics of liquid-phase epitaxy of Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 on Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 substrates having (110), (211), (321), (100) or (111) orientation has been studied and the results are discussed in terms of simple theoretical growth models. The (111) face is a rough face on an atomic scale, but the other faces are more or less singular faces. Growth hillocks are observed on the surfaces of films grown on (110), (211) and (321) substrates. The epitaxial layer in between the hillocks grows v...
Published on Jan 1, 1975
Robert Bertram Heimann1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Nov 1, 1974in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
Roger J. Davey21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UCL: University College London),
J. W. Mullin17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UCL: University College London)
The kinetics of movement of elliptical growth layers on the {100} faces of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystals are reported for growth from aqueous solution at 19.36, 23.96 and 28.54°C in the supersaturation range 0.025<σ<0.08. The layers are shown to be step bunches and surface diffusion is considered to play the rate determining role in the growth process. The effects of trace amounts (up to 100 ppm) of CrCl3s6H2O FeCl3 and AlCl3 on the kinetics of movement of the growth layers were studied...
Cited By38
Newest
Published on Aug 5, 2015in Crystal Growth & Design4.15
Hitoshi Miura11
Estimated H-index: 11
The step pinning hypothesis is widely accepted as an explanation for the inhabitation of crystal growth by impurity molecules. This hypothesis enables us to evaluate the average step velocity and the critical impurity density above which no step can move on the crystal surface polluted by impurities. The average step velocity and the critical impurity density were obtained analytically in some literature; however, they have not been verified with other approaches. Here, we propose a new method f...
Published on Mar 1, 2015in Advanced Materials Research
Xiu E Ren (JLU: Jilin University), Jian Hui Zhang (JLU: Jilin University)+ 1 AuthorsQi Dan Chen (JLU: Jilin University)
Preferential adsorption takes place at the step ledge between adjacent crystal faces, which usually serve as active sites for breaking chemical bonds. In this paper, we present a structural model to interpret the habit modification of single crystals in terms of the step geometries relationship between crystal faces. A new series of high index faces parallel to the ledge between adjacent facets can be explicitly determined from the presence of the symmetry operators in the space group. The relat...
Published on Nov 1, 2011in Journal of Crystal Growth1.57
Takahisa Fujiwara4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Tokushima),
Yoshihisa Suzuki15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Tokushima),
Katsuhiro Tamura12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Tokushima)
Abstract Equilibrium temperatures, T e , of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals were determined by in situ observation of apex regions formed by the (110), (110) and (101) faces of the crystals. We could precisely measure T e within 60 min, and with an error margin ±0.7 °C or less. This is largely because growth and dissolution can be detected more rapidly at the apex than at the steps at the center of the crystal faces.
Published on Jan 1, 2011in CrystEngComm3.38
Pedro Martins12
Estimated H-index: 12
(IBMC: Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular),
Fernando Rocha22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto)
+ 1 AuthorsPeter Rein6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Louisiana State University Agricultural Center)
The competitive adsorption model under unsteady state conditions (CAMUS) is presented and validated against experimental results of crystal growth inhibition in the presence of impurities. Particular emphasis is given to peculiar growth rate trends documented in the literature that are unexpected by the existing theories. These behaviours include intermittent crystal growth, increasing growth rates with time, and inverted U-shaped growth curves, which have been reported to occur in very diverse ...
Published on Jan 1, 2010
Francesco Abbona1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Dino Aquilano1
Estimated H-index: 1
Growth from solutions is widely used both in research laboratories and in many industrial fields. The control of crystal habit is a key point in solution growth as crystals may exhibit very different shapes according to the experimental conditions. In this chapter a concise review is given on this topic. First, the equilibrium shape is rather deeply developed due to its primary importance to understand crystal morphology, then the growth shape is treated and the main factors affecting the crysta...
Sunil Verma11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology),
Paul J. Shlichta1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract This review summarizes the optical, electromagnetic, and acoustic imaging techniques that are in use or available for mapping convection, temperature, and solute concentration in the solution around a growing crystal and for measuring the growth rate and the facial micromorphology of the crystal itself. By way of introduction, the need for such mapping, the value of optical, electromagnetic, and acoustic techniques, and the comparative value of two- vs. three-dimensional mapping are dis...
Published on Dec 1, 2006in Crystal Growth & Design4.15
Pedro Martins12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Fernando Rocha22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
Peter Rein6
Estimated H-index: 6
A mathematical model describing the growth of crystals in impure solutions is presented. Evidence of competitive surface adsorption involving the crystallizing solute and impurities is discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherm in equilibrium and of the mechanism of occupation of active sites for growth. The impurity effect on crystal growth rates is characterized by the Langmuir adsorption constants and by the parameter β measuring the ability of the foreign species to move across the surfac...
Published on Jan 1, 2006
Pedro Miguel da Silva Martins1
Estimated H-index: 1
Tese de doutoramento. Engenharia Quimica. 2006. Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Porto
Published on Jan 1, 2002
Paul Meenan7
Estimated H-index: 7
(DuPont),
Stephen R. Anderson1
Estimated H-index: 1
(DuPont),
Diana L. Klug1
Estimated H-index: 1
Publisher Summary This chapter reviews the fundamentals of impurity incorporation, solvent interaction, and solution thermodynamics. The advent of sophisticated molecular modeling tools coupled with the increasingly accurate means to determine crystal structure has led to a greater understanding of crystal surfaces, and consequently, of crystal surface impurity and crystal surface-solvent interactions. As crystallization is essentially a molecular recognition process that occurs on a grand scale...
Published on Apr 1, 2001in Chemical Engineering Science3.37
J. N. Sherwood30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Strathclyde),
R.I. Ristic15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Strathclyde)
Abstract A review is presented of the authors’ recent work on the influence of mechanical stress on the growth rate of materials. On the basis of the results, it is proposed that growth rate dispersion of secondary nuclei arises as a result of competition between stress reduction and dislocation enhancement of growth rates in the developing particles, with the former being the major influence at low particle sizes. The results are shown to account for the particle size and material dependence of...