Agronomic changes from 58 years of genetic improvement of short-season soybean cultivars in Canada

Published on Jan 1, 1999in Agronomy Journal1.805
· DOI :10.2134/agronj1999.914685x
Malcolm J. Morrison20
Estimated H-index: 20
Harvey D. Voldeng19
Estimated H-index: 19
Elroy R. Cober30
Estimated H-index: 30
In Canada, yield of short-season soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars has increased by approximately 0.5% per year since they were first cultivated in the early 1930s. Future yield gains may be dependent on an understanding of the changes made to soybean cultivars by breeding and selection. Our objective was to examine physiological differences associated with seed yield increase within a group of historical cultivars. At Ottawa. Ontario, we grew 14 cultivars representing seven decades of breeding and selection (1934-1992) in a randomized complete block design with four replications, across 4 years. Growth analysis provided data on leaf area and dry weight. Photosynthetic rate per leaf area was measured at several stages of development each year. Yield and harvest index were determined at maturity. The number of days to maturity and the total plant dry weight were not affected by the year of cultivar release. Seed yield, harvest index, and photosynthetic rate were found to have increased by 0.5% per year, while leaf area index decreased by 0.4% per year. The increase in seed yield with year of release was significantly correlated with an increase in harvest index, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance and a decrease in leaf area index. Today's cultivars are more efficient at producing and allocating carbon resources to seeds than were their predecessors.
  • References (28)
  • Citations (174)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
294 Citations
120 Citations
81 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Harvey D. VoldengH-Index: 19
#2Elroy R. CoberH-Index: 30
Last. Malcolm J. MorrisonH-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
120 CitationsSource
#1Bao-Luo MaH-Index: 36
#2Malcolm J. MorrisonH-Index: 20
Last. H. D. VoldengH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Leaf photosynthesis is a complex process. Determination of photosynthetic rate is too time-consuming to be used as a field selection criterion for cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in 1994 to quantify the relationships of leaf photosynthetic rates and other leaf characteristics (greenness, area, specific weight) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] at several growth stages to identify possible indirect indicators of soybean leaf photosynthesis. Our results showed that lea...
79 CitationsSource
Plant spacing greatly affects leaf area, light interception, and canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This study examined relationships among these variables in four population-density and row-width treatment combinations for two seasons. Wide-row (0.96 m) treatments were 3, 11, and 18 plants m -2 in 1988 and 3, 15, and 24 in 1989 ; narrow-row (0.43 m) treatments tended to have greater CAP rates during early growth in 1988, but not 1989, when rates lagged beh...
95 CitationsSource
The extinction coefficients for chlorophylls a and b in diethylether (Smith, J.H.C. and Benitez, A. (1955) in Modern Methods of Plant Analysis (Paech, K. and Tracey, M.V., eds.), Vol. 4, pp. 143–196, Springer-Verlag, Berlin), used in this paper as primary standards, were verified, to within an error of less than 1%, by magnesium determination using atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. We also report the determination of accurate extinction coefficients for chlorophylls a and b in N,N ′-dimethylf...
3,833 CitationsSource
Canopy-apparent photosynthesis (CAP) of soybean, plants during reproductive development differs among genotypes, is a heritable trait, and is positively associated with seed yield. This research was undertaken to: (i) determine if the CAP response patterns of F 4 lines remain relatively stable in F 6 lines, (ii) determine the association of CAP to yield and growth characteristics in F 6 lines, and (iii) identify F 6 lines with similar maturity and divergent CAP
20 CitationsSource
95 CitationsSource
Elements of Experimentation. Single-Factor Experiments. Two-Factor Experiments. Three-or More-Factor Experiments. Comparison Between Treatment Means. Analysis of Multiobservation Data. Problem Data. Analysis of Data from a Series of Experiments. Regression and Correlation Analysis. Covariance Analysis. Chi-Square Test. Soil Heterogeneity. Competition Effects. Mechanical Errors. Sampling in Experimental Plots. Experiments in Farmers' Fields. Presentation of Experimental Results. Appendices. Index...
9,601 Citations
#1Duane Merlin FordH-Index: 2
#2Richard ShiblesH-Index: 23
Last. D. E. GreenH-Index: 7
view all 3 authors...
33 CitationsSource
#1Randy WellsH-Index: 23
#2L. L. SchulzeH-Index: 1
Last. R. H. BrownH-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
67 CitationsSource
#1J. SecorH-Index: 2
#2D.R. McCartyH-Index: 1
Last. D. E. GreenH-Index: 7
view all 4 authors...
28 CitationsSource
Cited By174
#1Santiago Tamagno (KSU: Kansas State University)H-Index: 3
#2Victor O. Sadras (University of Adelaide)H-Index: 55
Last. Ignacio A. Ciampitti (KSU: Kansas State University)H-Index: 23
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Seed yield is commonly expressed as the product of shoot biomass and harvest index (HI) at physiological maturity. However, HI is a size-dependent ratio unsuitable to describe shifts in reproductive partitioning in historical soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] studies where selection has enhanced shoot biomass. The aim of this work was to analyze allocation of biomass to reproductive organs in the onset of seed filling (R5) using allometric analysis in a set of historical soybean varietie...
#1Anne Marmagne (Université Paris-Saclay)H-Index: 14
#2Sophie Jasinski (Université Paris-Saclay)H-Index: 2
Last. Fabien Chardon (Université Paris-Saclay)H-Index: 25
view all 7 authors...
Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient that plants require for the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, and many other important metabolites. Plant metabolism and growth are consequently dependent on N amount that is assimilated and distributed from source leaves to developing sinks, like fruits and seeds. The environmental stresses enhanced by climate change deeply influence seed yield and seed composition, and may disturb N use efficiency (NUE) in pants. We aimed to investigate plant responses t...
#1Matías de Felipe (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)H-Index: 1
#2Lucas Borrás (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)H-Index: 4
Last. José L. Rotundo (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)H-Index: 13
view all 5 authors...
#1Hamid Khazaei (U of S: University of Saskatchewan)H-Index: 11
#2Damian WachH-Index: 2
Last. Frederick L. Stoddard (UH: University of Helsinki)H-Index: 36
view all 5 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Kyle A. Parmley (Iowa State University)H-Index: 3
#2Race H. Higgins (Iowa State University)H-Index: 2
Last. Asheesh K. Singh (Iowa State University)H-Index: 22
view all 5 authors...
We explored the capability of fusing high dimensional phenotypic trait (phenomic) data with a machine learning (ML) approach to provide plant breeders the tools to do both in-season seed yield (SY) prediction and prescriptive cultivar development for targeted agro-management practices (e.g., row spacing and seeding density). We phenotyped 32 SoyNAM parent genotypes in two independent studies each with contrasting agro-management treatments (two row spacing, three seeding densities). Phenotypic t...
3 CitationsSource
#1Thomas R. Sinclair (NCSU: North Carolina State University)H-Index: 65
#2Thomas W. Rufty (NCSU: North Carolina State University)H-Index: 38
Last. Ramsey S. Lewis (NCSU: North Carolina State University)H-Index: 16
view all 3 authors...
Increasing the photosynthesis rate of plants has been recently revitalized as an approach for increasing grain crop yields and solving world food crises. The idea that photosynthesis is the key to increasing grain crop yields is not new. Considerable research in the 1970s and 1980s showed that carbon input was not limiting for crop growth and yield. Instead, the availability and uptake of water and nutrients were found to be critical for increasing grain yield, and that conclusion still applies ...
10 CitationsSource
#1Jonathan D. Rosset (UM: University of Manitoba)
#2Robert H. Gulden (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 18
Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] has recently become a popular rotational crop in the Canadian Northern Great Plains where herbicide-resistant (HR) soybean cultivars have been widely adopted. Intense reliance on herbicides has contributed to the development of HR weeds in soybean and other crops. Cultural weed management practices reduce the need for herbicides and lower the selection pressure for HR weed biotypes by improving the competitiveness of the crop. The effects of two row spacings, th...
#1Mengjie Hou (CAU: China Agricultural University)H-Index: 1
#2Fei Tian (CAU: China Agricultural University)H-Index: 1
Last. Mengsi Huang (CAU: China Agricultural University)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Canopy temperature depression (CTD = canopy temperature (T c ) – air temperature (T a )), transpiration (T), and canopy greenness (CG) have much to do with crop yields, and they have been widely used to estimate crop yields. However, the issues relating to the best measurement time to predict crop yields have seldom been addressed. Hence, the present study was conducted to identify the best measurement time and provide a new way to rapidly predict soybean yield prediction in a semiarid ...
#1Elroy R. Cober (AAFC: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada)H-Index: 30
#2Malcolm J. Morrison (AAFC: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada)H-Index: 20
From 1993, we have conducted trials with the same set of old to newer soybean cultivars to determine the impact of plant breeding on seed yield, physiological and agronomic characteristics, and seed composition. Since 1993, global atmospheric [CO2] increased by 47 ppm. The objective of our current analysis with this data set was to determine if there were changes in soybean seed yield, quality or phenology attributable to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2), temperature or precipitatio...
2 CitationsSource
Phenotypic characterisation provides important information about novel crops that helps their developers to make technical and commercial decisions. Phenotypic characterisation comprises two activities. Product characterisation checks that the novel crop has the qualities of a viable product—the intended traits have been introduced and work as expected, and no unintended changes have been made that will adversely affect the performance of the final product. Risk assessment evaluates whether the ...
2 CitationsSource