Life cycle assessment of bio-based products: a disposable diaper case study

Published on Jun 1, 2013in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
· DOI :10.1007/s11367-013-0556-6
Nadia Mirabella6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Milan),
Valentina Castellani13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Milan),
Serenella Sala24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Milan)
Abstract
Purpose In this study, a life cycle assessment of a bioplastic based diaper was performed. The product has several innovative elements, due to the implementation of eco-design principles, such as: (1) introduction of biopolymers (namely polylactic acid (PLA) and Mater-bi®), (2) relevant reduction of petrochemical plastics, and (3) minimization of energy consumptions and use of renewable energy in manufacturing. The aim of the study is to evaluate the environmental benefits gained through eco-innovation, while identifying further areas of improvement.
  • References (22)
  • Citations (21)
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References22
Published on Jun 1, 2011in The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 2.63
James T. Hughes5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of California, Davis),
Alexandra Navrotsky68
Estimated H-index: 68
(University of California, Davis)
Abstract The enthalpy of formation of zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 · 2H 2 O) was measured with respect to crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO), glacial acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) and liquid water by room temperature solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation was verified by utilizing two independent thermodynamic cycles, using enthalpy of solution measurements in 5 mol · L −1 sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and in 5 mol · L −1 hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions. The enthalpy of the reaction ZnO (cr) ...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2014in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
Manfred Klinglmair1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Serenella Sala24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Miguel Brandão18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Pompeu Fabra University)
Purpose Political interest in the future availability of natural resources has spiked recently, with new documents from the European Union, United Nations Environment Programme and the US National Research Council assessing the supply situation of key raw materials. As resource efficiency is considered a key element for sustainable development, suitable methods to address sustainability of resource use are increasingly needed. Life cycle thinking and assessment may play a principal role here. No...
93 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2011in Food Policy 3.11
Mark Harvey12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Essex),
Sarah Pilgrim8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Essex)
The paper addresses the new competition for land arising from growing and changing demand for food when combined with increasing global demand for transport energy, under conditions of declining petro-chemical resources and the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The paper starts from the premise of a ‘food, energy and environment trilemma’ (Tilman et al., 2009), where all demands to expand the area of cultivated land present high risks of increasing the carbon footprint of agricultu...
220 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2003in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
Olivier Jolliet41
Estimated H-index: 41
(École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne),
Manuele Margni35
Estimated H-index: 35
(École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
+ 4 AuthorsRalph K. Rosenbaum23
Estimated H-index: 23
(École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
The new IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment methodology proposes a feasible implementation of a combined midpoint/damage approach, linking all types of life cycle inventory results (elementary flows and other interventions) via 14 midpoint categories to four damage categories. For IMPACT 2002+, new concepts and methods have been developed, especially for the comparative assessment of human toxicity and ecotoxicity. Human Damage Factors are calculated for carcinogens and non-carcinogens, em...
970 Citations Source Cite
David Tilman131
Estimated H-index: 131
,
Christian Balzer3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of California, Santa Barbara)
+ 1 AuthorsBelinda L. Befort1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Minnesota)
Abstract Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100–110% increase in g...
1,916 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2010in Industrial Biotechnology
Erwin T.H. Vink6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Steve Davies2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Jeffrey J. Kolstad3
Estimated H-index: 3
Abstract Ingeo® polylactides are biopolymers with varied applications made entirely from annually renewable resources and produced since 2001 by NatureWorks LLC at a 140 000 tonne/yr facility in Blair, Nebraska, USA. NatureWorks’ objectives include eliminating nonrenewable energy use and the emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as minimizing nonvaluable co-products and reducing water use. These objectives are being accomplished through continual improvement of the Ingeo production technology. ...
97 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2010in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
Wim Groot34
Estimated H-index: 34
,
Tobias Borén1
Estimated H-index: 1
(AkzoNobel)
Background l-lactide is the monomer for the polymer poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA). PLLA can be made from renewable resources, and is used in an increasing amount of applications. The biopolymer PLLA is one type of polymer of the family of polylactic acids (PLAs). Purac produces l-lactide and d-lactide, and supports partners with know-how to produce their own PLA from lactide. This life cycle assessment (LCA) study supporting market development presents the eco-profile of lactides and PLA biopolymers...
89 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2012in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
Anne V. Weisbrod9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Procter & Gamble),
Gert Van Hoof9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Procter & Gamble)
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the sustainability of disposable baby diapers (nappies) using life cycle assessments (LCAs). Size 4 Pampers® Cruisers (North American name) and ActiveFit (European name) from 2007 are compared to new versions made in 2010 to determine if the design and materials changes intended to improve performance also lead to reductions in the most relevant environmental indicators.
19 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 11, 2012in Chemical Reviews 52.61
Guo-Qiang Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Martin Kumar Patel43
Estimated H-index: 43
In the time period 2010 2015, the worldwide annual production of plastics is very likely to surpass 300 million tons,1,2 requiring multiple amounts of petroleum and leading to hundreds of millions of tons ofCO2 in addition to health risks for the public due to the release of other types of emissions.1,3 A large amount of plastics (at least 40% of the total consumption) is used in short-term applications, and the resulting waste can quickly lead to additional environmental damage unless adequate ...
383 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1996in Journal of Chemical Education 1.76
Fredric L. Buchholz1
Estimated H-index: 1
Superabsorbent polymers are cross-linked polyelectrolytes. Because of their ionic nature and interconnected structure, they absorb large quantities of water and other aqueous solutions without dissolving. This makes them ideally suited as absorbents of body fluids in many personal care products sold today, including baby diapers, adult incontinence products, and feminine napkins. Several emerging applications are also described. A simple laboratory preparation of partially neutralized, cross-lin...
37 Citations Source Cite
  • References (22)
  • Citations (21)
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Cited By21
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Operations Management Research 1.52
Donghyun Choi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Korea Aerospace University),
Taewon Hwang8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Valdosta State University)
This study attempts to contribute to the growing research on green supply chain management (GSCM) strategies by relying on the Natural Resource Based View (NRBV) and relational view. Specifically, this study investigates the role of collaborative capability in moderating the effects of GSCM practices on firm performance. Using hierarchical regression, this study analyzes data from a survey of 230 South Korean manufacturers. The results show that the implementation of GSCM practices can improve b...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2015in Journal of Industrial Ecology 4.36
Sheetal Gavankar3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of California, Santa Barbara),
Sarah E. Anderson8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of California, Santa Barbara),
Arturo A. Keller48
Estimated H-index: 48
(University of California, Santa Barbara)
Because of their recognition as a comprehensive tool of environmental assessments and their increasing use by governments and industries, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are positioned to be prominent sources of mass media information on new products and technologies. The LCA studies underlying media reports are often viewed by nonexperts after the initial reporting. However, uncertainty is rife in early assessments of emerging technologies, and LCA's ability to inform environmental opinions and d...
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 16, 2013in Bioresources 1.20
Martin A. Hubbe30
Estimated H-index: 30
(North Carolina State University),
Ali Ayoub11
Estimated H-index: 11
(North Carolina State University)
+ 2 AuthorsJoel J. Pawlak22
Estimated H-index: 22
(North Carolina State University)
Cellulose and some cellulose derivatives can play vital roles in the enhancement of the performance of absorbent products. Cellulose itself, in the form of cellulosic fibers or nano-fibers, can provide structure, bulk, water-holding capacity, and channeling of fluids over a wide dimensional range. Likewise, cellulose derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) have been widely studied as components in superabsorbent polymer (SAP) formulations. The present review focuses on strategies and me...
17 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2014in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
Yasuhiko Akanuma1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Michigan State University),
Susan Selke27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Michigan State University),
Rafael Auras31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Michigan State University)
Purpose This study provides a preliminary comparison of the environmental burdens of three different pathways for production of bio-based purified terephthalic acid (PTA), suitable for the production of 100 % bio-based poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. These pathways are through (1) muconic acid originating in wheat stover; (2) isobutanol originating in corn; and (3) benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) originating in poplar. The goal is to point out what areas of these processes are the largest ...
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2015in Journal of Cleaner Production 5.65
Mauro Cordella7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Iris Bauer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PE International)
+ 2 AuthorsOliver Wolf1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract An assessment of the environmental aspects related to the life cycle of disposable baby diapers in Europe is presented in this paper with the aim of analysing recent improvements and identifying key environmental areas on which to focus in order to further decrease impacts. Average products available on the European market in recent years have been modelled and evaluated from “cradle to grave”. Results point out the importance of materials in the definition of the environmental profile ...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 11, 2014in Bioresources 1.20
Xiaoli Song1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Ying Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsChunpeng Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
Acrylic impact modifiers (ACRs) with different soft/hard monomer ratios (mass ratios) were prepared by semi-continuous seed emulsion copolymerization using the soft monomer butyl acrylate and the hard monomer methyl methacrylate, which were used to toughen polylactide (PLA). The effect of soft/hard ACR monomer ratio on the mechanical properties of PLA/ACR blends was investigated. The results showed that the impact strength and the elongation at break of PLA/ACR blends increased with increasing s...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2014in Waste Management 4.72
Michel Torrijos22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique),
Philippe Sousbie5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
+ 5 AuthorsJean Philippe Steyer16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
The results presented in this paper are part of a project aimed at designing an original solution for the treatment of used disposable diapers permitting the recycling of materials and the recovery of energy. Diapers must be collected separately at source and transported to an industrial facility to undergo special treatment which makes it possible to separate plastics and to recover a biodegradable fraction (BFD) made up mainly of cellulose. The methane yield of BFD was measured and found to be...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Journal of Cleaner Production 5.65
Hassan I. Moussa2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Waterloo),
Ali Elkamel25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Waterloo),
Steven B. Young12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Waterloo)
Abstract Bio-succinic acid (bio-SAC) is a promising industrial alternative to the currently used petroleum counterparts. This is mainly due to its energy and environmental performances, which were both, assessed using a cradle-to-gate LCA approach. The foreground data used in this LCA were based on real production data from a facility in Louisiana, USA that uses a non-food crop feedstock. Results indicate that electricity use and heat generation were identified to have the biggest impact on the ...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2017in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4.20
Valentina Prado4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Leiden University),
Ben A. Wender1
Estimated H-index: 1
(National Academies),
Thomas P. Seager15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Arizona State University)
Purpose Identification of environmentally preferable alternatives in a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging in the presence of multiple incommensurate indicators. To make the problem more manageable, some LCA practitioners apply external normalization to find those indicators that contribute the most to their respective environmental impact categories. However, in some cases, these results can be entirely driven by the normalization reference, rather than the comparative pe...
8 Citations Source Cite
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