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Sea ice conditions and melt season duration variability within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979–2008

Published on May 21, 2009in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
· DOI :10.1029/2009GL037681
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Claude R. Duguay29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Thorsten Markus35
Estimated H-index: 35
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)
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Abstract
[1] Sea ice conditions and melt season duration within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) were investigated from 1979–2008. The CAA is exhibiting statistically significant decreases in average September total sea ice area at −8.7% decade−1. The melt season duration within the CAA is increasing significantly at 7 days decade−1. 2008 represented the longest melt season duration within the CAA over the satellite record at 129 days. Average September multi-year ice (MYI) area is decreasing at −6.4% decade−1 but has yet to reach statistical significance as a result of increasing MYI dynamic import from the Arctic Ocean. Results also find that the Western Parry Channel (WPC) region of the Northwest Passage (NWP) will continue to be susceptible to MYI as the transition to a summer-time sea ice free Arctic continues. The processes responsible for the temporary clearing of the WPC region of the NWP in 2007 were also identified.
  • References (12)
  • Citations (71)
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References12
Newest
Published on Mar 9, 2012in The Cryosphere4.79
Claire L. Parkinson39
Estimated H-index: 39
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center),
Donald J. Cavalieri41
Estimated H-index: 41
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)
Analyses of 32 yr (1979–2010) of Arctic sea ice extents and areas derived from satellite passive microwave radiometers are presented for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole and for nine Arctic regions. There is an overall negative yearly trend of −51.5 ± 4.1 × 10 3 km 2 yr −1 (−4.1 ± 0.3% decade −1 ) in sea ice extent for the hemisphere. The yearly sea ice extent trends for the individual Arctic regions are all negative except for the Bering Sea: −3.9 ± 1.1 × 10 3 km 2 yr −1 (−8.7 ± 2.5% decade −...
Published on Oct 15, 2008in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Tom Agnew5
Estimated H-index: 5
(EC: Environment Canada),
A. Lambe1
Estimated H-index: 1
(U of T: University of Toronto),
David G. Long36
Estimated H-index: 36
(BYU: Brigham Young University)
[1] Enhanced resolution Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) imagery is used to estimate daily sea ice area fluxes between the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay for the period September 2002 to June 2007. Over the period, Amundsen Gulf and M'Clure Strait exported 54 × 103 km2 of sea ice area or roughly 77 km3 of sea ice volume each year into the Arctic Ocean. Export/import into the Arctic Ocean through the Queen Elizabeth Islands is small and uncertain si...
Published on Sep 18, 2008in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Adrienne Tivy9
Estimated H-index: 9
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 2 AuthorsClaude R. Duguay29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Waterloo)
[1] Estimates of annual sea ice melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration are made within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) using SeaWinds/QuikSCAT data from 2000 to 2007. The average date of melt onset occurred on day 150, the average freeze onset occurred on day 266, and the average number of days of melt was 116. Melt onset occurred first, and freeze onset occurred last within the Amundsen, Western Arctic Waterway, and Eastern Parry Channel regions, whereas the reverse occurred in the Q...
Published on Jun 1, 2008in Atmosphere-ocean1.17
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Adrienne Tivy9
Estimated H-index: 9
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 1 AuthorsSteve McCourt7
Estimated H-index: 7
(EC: Environment Canada)
Abstract Numerous studies have reported decreases in Arctic sea‐ice cover over the past several decades and General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations continue to predict future decreases. These decreases — particularly in thick perennial or multi‐year ice (MYI) — have led to considerable speculation about a more accessible Northwest Passage (NWP) as a transit route through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is used to investigate dynamic imp...
Published on Oct 24, 2006in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
G. W. K. Moore34
Estimated H-index: 34
(U of T: University of Toronto)
[1] Sea ice plays an important role in the climate and ecology of the Arctic. Numerous studies have identified a reduction in Arctic sea ice cover that has occurred over the past several decades, the period for which we have remotely sensed sea ice concentration data. The regional and seasonal expressions of this reduction have not been as extensively studied. In this paper, we describe the reduction in sea ice concentration that has occurred around southern Baffin Island, one of the Arctic's mo...
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Annals of Glaciology3.13
Julienne C. Stroeve46
Estimated H-index: 46
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Thorsten Markus35
Estimated H-index: 35
+ 1 AuthorsJeffrey Miller5
Estimated H-index: 5
Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of a...
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
R. Kowk60
Estimated H-index: 60
(California Institute of Technology)
[1] First estimates of sea ice exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are obtained using six years (1997–2002) of RADARSAT ice motion. Over the period, the mean annual flux of sea ice area from the Amundsen Gulf (AG), M'Clure Strait (MS), and Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) are −85 ± 26 × 103, −20 ± 24 × 103, and 8 ± 6 × 103 km2. Positive/negative sign indicates Arctic outflow/inflow. Overall, net sea ice area is exported from the CAA; rough estimates suggest a...
Published on Jan 1, 2002in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Humfrey Melling32
Estimated H-index: 32
(Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
[1] Existing information concerning the pack ice and relevant climate variables of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago north of Parry Channel is summarized. This knowledge is enhanced by newly available data on ice thickness derived from 123,703 drill holes completed during the 1970s. Pack ice in this area is a mix of multiyear, second-year, and first-year ice types, with the latter subordinate except in the southeast. Ice remains land fast for more than half the year, and summertime ice concentrati...
Published on Oct 27, 2001in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Sheldon Drobot18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Mark R. Anderson11
Estimated H-index: 11
Ablation of snow over sea ice is an important physical process affecting the Arctic surface energy balance. An improved understanding of the spatial and temporal variations in snowmelt onset could be utilized to improve climate simulations in the Arctic, as well as monitor the Arctic for signs of climate change. Utilizing an updated approach for monitoring snowmelt onset over Arctic sea ice, spatial variability in passive microwave derived snowmelt onset dates is examined from 1979 through 1998....
Published on Nov 15, 1998in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Douglas M. Smith2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCL: University College London)
The onset of spring melt and autumn freeze-up of Arctic sea ice are shown, through comparison with coincident ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and surface air temperature data, to produce significant and detectable changes in the passive microwave signature. Melt onset is marked by a sharp rise in brightness temperatures resulting from the increased emissivity of moisture in the snow cover. Freeze-up is accompanied by a sharp drop in brightness temperatures because of volume scattering by bu...
Cited By71
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
M. Ahmed (U of C: University of Calgary), Brent Else19
Estimated H-index: 19
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 1 AuthorsTim Papakyriakou27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UM: University of Manitoba)
Published on Dec 13, 2018in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Nathan Grivault1
Estimated H-index: 1
(U of A: University of Alberta),
Xianmin Hu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(U of A: University of Alberta),
Paul G. Myers22
Estimated H-index: 22
(U of A: University of Alberta)
Published on Oct 16, 2018in Remote Sensing4.12
Justin Murfitt1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Laura C. Brown11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
Published on Apr 4, 2018in The Cryosphere4.79
Lawrence Mudryk9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Chris Derksen30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 6 AuthorsRoss Brown30
Estimated H-index: 30
The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. ...
Published on Mar 1, 2018in Environmental Reviews3.96
James D. Ford42
Estimated H-index: 42
(McGill University),
N. Couture9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NRCan: Natural Resources Canada)
+ 1 AuthorsDylan G. Clark4
Estimated H-index: 4
(McGill University)
This paper identifies and characterizes current knowledge on climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability for Canada’s northern coastline, outlining key research gaps. Warming temperatures and increased precipitation have been documented across the northern coast, with the rate of sea ice decline ranging from 2.9% to 10.4% per decade. Storm intensity and frequency is increasing, and permafrost is warming across the region. Many of these changes are projected to accelerate in the future,...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Continental Shelf Research2.13
Nicolas-Xavier Geilfus13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UM: University of Manitoba),
M.L. Pind1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UM: University of Manitoba)
+ 7 AuthorsTim Papakyriakou27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UM: University of Manitoba)
Abstract The partial pressure of CO 2 in surface water ( p CO 2 sw ) measured within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and Baffin Bay was highly variable with values ranging from strongly undersaturated (118 µatm) to slightly supersaturated (419 µatm) with respect to the atmospheric levels (~386 μatm) during summer and autumn 2011. During summer, melting sea ice contributed to cold and fresh surface water and enhanced the ice-edge bloom, resulting in strong p CO 2 sw undersaturation. Coronat...
Published on Oct 10, 2017in The Cryosphere4.79
Xianmin Hu7
Estimated H-index: 7
(U of A: University of Alberta),
Jingfan Sun1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsPaul G. Myers22
Estimated H-index: 22
(U of A: University of Alberta)
Sea ice thickness evolution within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is of great interest to science, as well as local communities and their economy. In this study, based on the NEMO numerical framework including the LIM2 sea ice module, simulations at both 1∕4 and 1∕12° horizontal resolution were conducted from 2002 to 2016. The model captures well the general spatial distribution of ice thickness in the CAA region, with very thick sea ice (∼ 4 m and thicker) in the northern CAA, thick sea ...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Climate Dynamics4.05
Thomas W. Collow2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration),
Wanqiu Wang30
Estimated H-index: 30
(NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
+ 1 AuthorsJinlun Zhang45
Estimated H-index: 45
(UW: University of Washington)
The capability of a numerical model to simulate the statistical characteristics of the summer sea ice date of retreat (DOR) and the winter date of advance (DOA) is investigated using sea ice concentration output from the Climate Forecast System Version 2 model (CFSv2). Two model configurations are tested, the operational setting (CFSv2CFSR) which uses initial data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and a modified version (CFSv2PIOMp) which ingests sea ice thickness initialization data ...
Published on Jun 30, 2017in Resources
Margaret Johnston13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Jackie Dawson19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
Patrick T. Maher11
Estimated H-index: 11
Marine tourism in Arctic Canada has grown substantially since 2005. Though there are social, economic and cultural opportunities associated with industry growth, climate change and a range of environmental risks and other problems present significant management challenges. This paper describes the growth in cruise tourism and pleasure craft travel in Canada’s Nunavut Territory and then outlines issues and concerns related to existing management of both cruise and pleasure craft tourism. Strength...