Toward Guidelines for Evidence-Based Assessment of Depression in Children and Adolescents

Published on Aug 1, 2005in Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 5.01
· DOI :10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_3
Daniel N. Klein71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Stony Brook University),
Lea R. Dougherty23
Estimated H-index: 23
Thomas M. Olino30
Estimated H-index: 30
We aim to provide a starting point toward the development of an evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. We begin by discussing issues relevant to the diagnosis and classification of child and adolescent depression. Next, we review the prevalence, selected clinical correlates, course, and treatment of juvenile depression. Along with some general considerations in assessment, we discuss specific approaches to assessing depression in youth (i.e., interviews, rating scales) and briefly summarize evidence on the reliability and validity of a few selected instruments. In addition, we touch on the assessment of several other constructs that are important in a comprehensive evaluation of depression (i.e., social functioning, life stress, and family history of psychopathology). Last, we highlight areas in which further research is necessary and conclude with some broad recommendations for clinical practice given the current state of the knowledge.
  • References (157)
  • Citations (224)
Published on Jul 1, 1994in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
Daniel N. Klein71
Estimated H-index: 71
Ouimette Pc3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 2 AuthorsRiso Lp4
Estimated H-index: 4
Objective: The present study examined the test-retest reliability of team consensus best-estimate diagnoses of axis I and II disorders. Method: As part of a series of family studies of outpatients with depressive and personality disorders, best-estimate diagnoses of relatives were derived in team diagnostic conderences held regularly over 4 years. Diagnoses were based on all available information, including direct interviews, family history data, and treatment records, and explicit guidelines we...
199 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 1980in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
Gabrielle A. Carlson58
Estimated H-index: 58
Dennis P. Cantwell51
Estimated H-index: 51
The authors examined depressive symptoms and behavior disorders in 102 systematically interviewed children aged 7 to 17 years to elucidate the category of masked depression. They found that it was possible to diagnose these children using adult research criteria and that more children with depression were identified using a systematic interview than were identified using standard evaluation procedures. Although children with a depressive disorder may also exhibit behavior disorders that overshad...
279 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1999in Mental Health Services Research
Glorisa Canino68
Estimated H-index: 68
(University of Puerto Rico),
E. Jane Costello76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Duke University),
Adrian Angold85
Estimated H-index: 85
(Duke University)
The need for assessing impairment in functioning as an integral part of child mental health services research is discussed. Methodologic difficulties related to problems in case definition, the conceptual definition of impairment and social adaptation, and the assessment of the construct across cultures are also addressed. In addition, a critical review of existing child impairment measures with published psychometric properties is presented. The measures are divided into three types: measures o...
48 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2001in Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 3.60
Michael P. Bates8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of California, Santa Barbara)
Measures of impairment in psychological and behavioral functioning have a long history in the field of children's mental health, and appear particularly useful in eligibility determination, treatment planning, and outcome evaluation of services for children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbance (SED). One recently developed multidimensional measure of functional impairment—the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS; K. Hodges, 1989, 1997)—has enjoyed widespread use ...
54 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2001in Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 3.60
Lisa Sheeber34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Oregon Research Institute),
Hyman Hops53
Estimated H-index: 53
(Oregon Research Institute),
Betsy Davis19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Oregon Research Institute)
A developing body of research points to the role of family relationships and interactions as factors relevant to understanding unipolar depressive symptomatology and disorder in adolescents. This paper is focused on examining mechanisms by which adverse family processes may operate to increase adolescents' vulnerability to depression. The review is organized into a description and evaluation of four potential mechanisms by which families may influence adolescents' risk: (a) Stress/Support, (b) S...
223 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1999in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 4.54
Eric A. Youngstrom58
Estimated H-index: 58
(Case Western Reserve University),
Carroll E. Izard49
Estimated H-index: 49
(University of Delaware),
Brian P. Ackerman31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Delaware)
Circumstantial evidence suggests that dysphoria creates a negative bias in caregivers' descriptions of child functioning. Past research has confounded informant and setting, making it unclear whether caregivers are biased or veridically reporting worse behavior in the home. In the present study, 137 low-income mothers watched videotapes of their own child and a control child performing a frustrating task. Mothers then completed 18 items assessing different positive and negative behaviors and emo...
183 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1995in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 4.54
Bahr Weiss41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Vanderbilt University),
John R. Weisz86
Estimated H-index: 86
(University of California, Los Angeles)
Some researchers have concluded that, for children and adolescents, behavioral interventions may be more effective than nonbehavioral interventions. Other researchers, however, have proposed artifactual hypotheses for the apparent superiority of behavioral treatments. In this study, one such hypothesis was evaluated: that the apparent superiority of behavioral interventions among children is due to differences in the methodological quality of studies of behavioral and nonbehavioral treatments. M...
81 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2002in Comprehensive Psychiatry 2.13
Stewart A. Shankman23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Stony Brook University),
Daniel N. Klein71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Stony Brook University)
Abstract It has long been debated whether depression is best classified with a categorical or dimensional diagnostic system. There has been surprisingly little discussion, however, of what the contents of a dimensional classification should include, with most studies employing a single dimension based on symptom severity. The present study explored whether a dimension based on prior course of depression increases the validity of a dimensional model based on symptom severity alone and whether the...
17 Citations Source Cite
Cited By224
Published on Sep 1, 2014in Primary Care 1.83
Marilia G. Neves1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai),
Francesco Leanza2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)
The primary care setting is considered the entry point of adolescents with mental illness in the health care system. This article informs primary care providers about the diagnostic features and differential of mood disorders in adolescents, screening and assessment, as well as evidence-based psychosocial and psychopharmacologic therapies. The article also provides a framework for decision making regarding initiating treatment in the primary care setting and referral to mental health services. F...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2012in American Family Physician 1.97
Molly S. Clark4
Estimated H-index: 4
Kate L. Jansen2
Estimated H-index: 2
J. Anthony Cloy1
Estimated H-index: 1
Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is a common condition that affects physical, emotional, and social development. Risk factors include a family history of depression, parental conflict, poor peer relationships, deficits in coping skills, and negative thinking. Diagnostic criteria are the same for children and adults, with the exception that children and adolescents may express irritability rather than sad or depressed mood, and weight loss may be viewed in terms of failure to...
29 Citations
Published on Apr 1, 2016in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3.29
Jessica L. Hamilton15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Temple University),
Carrie M. Potter8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Temple University)
+ 3 AuthorsLauren B. Alloy63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Temple University)
Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms followi...
13 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Child Abuse & Neglect 2.90
C. Bartelink3
Estimated H-index: 3
Tom van Yperen7
Estimated H-index: 7
Ingrid J. ten Berge2
Estimated H-index: 2
Assessment and decision-making in child maltreatment cases is difficult. Practitioners face many uncertainties and obstacles during their assessment and decision-making process. Research exhibits shortcomings in this decision-making process. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and discuss methods to overcome these shortcomings. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on decision-making using PsychINFO and MEDLINE from 2000 through May 2014. We included revie...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2016in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3.29
Maria del Mar Bernad6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of the Balearic Islands),
Mateu Servera15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of the Balearic Islands)
+ 1 AuthorsG. Leonard Burns29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Washington State University)
Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), few studies have examined whether SCT longitudinally predicts other symptom or impairment dimensions. This study used 4 sources (mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers) and 3 occasions of measurement (first, second, and third grades) with 758 first grade (55 % boys), 718 second grade (54 % boys), and 585 third grade (53 % boys) children from Spain to determ...
25 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Journal of Nature and Science
Adam M. Reid9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Florida),
Paulo A. Graziano19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Florida International University)
+ 2 AuthorsGary R. Geffken46
Estimated H-index: 46
(University of Florida)
The objective of this research was to investigate differences in functional impairment between youth with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and an Anxiety Disorder (ADHD + AD) or a Mood Disorder (ADHD + MD) by comparing average impairment on one clinician-rated (Global Assessment of Functioning) and three parent-rated (Adaptability, Metacognition, and Psychosocial) measures of functional impairment. Participants for this study included 59 youth with 6-17 years of age who were recei...
Published on Jan 1, 2006in School Psychology Review 1.52
George J. DuPaul49
Estimated H-index: 49
(Lehigh University),
Asha K. Jitendra32
Estimated H-index: 32
(Lehigh University)
+ 3 AuthorsJ. Gary Lutz14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Lehigh University)
Abstract. Few studies have comprehensively examined possible gender differences in the school functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated differences in academic, social, and emotional and behavioral functioning between 133 male and 42 female elementary school students who met research diagnostic criteria for ADHD. School functioning was assessed using teacher ratings, direct observations of classroom behavior, and a standardized, norm-re...
47 Citations
Franz Petermann44
Estimated H-index: 44
Leila Hamid1
Estimated H-index: 1
Zusammenfassung: Die noch junge Disziplin der Klinischen Kinderpsychologie zeigt in verschiedenen Anwendungsgebieten erhebliche Fortschritte auf. Im Detail werden ausgefuhrt: Entwicklungs- und Intelligenzdiagnostik, Betreuung chronisch kranker Kinder und Jugendlicher, Essstorungen und Adipositas, ADHS, Lernstorungen, familienorientierte Diagnostik und Therapie sowie Qualitatssicherung in der psychotherapeutischen Versorgung. Einige Konzepte (z. B. ADHS) besitzen eine immer grosere Bedeutung in d...
9 Citations Source Cite
Alayna L. Park5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of California, Los Angeles),
Chad Ebesutani17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Duksung Women's University)
+ 1 AuthorsBruce F. Chorpita31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of California, Los Angeles)
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale – Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire that assesses dimensions of DSM anxiety and depressive disorders in youths. Previous studies have found that the RCADS-P possesses clinical utility and strong psychometric properties in both clinic- and school-based populations. To increase applicability of the measure to a greater proportion of the individuals accessing mental health services, the present study sought to develop and examin...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 23, 2008in Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2.92
JoAnn Elizabeth Leavey1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of British Columbia),
Monica Flexhaug1
Estimated H-index: 1
Tom Ehmann1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Vancouver Coastal Health)
Aim: The purpose of this review is to report on existing literature regarding children and adolescents younger than 16 years of age experiencing a first-episode psychiatric disturbance. Rather than providing a comprehensive list of service implications, this paper identifies some of the gaps in knowledge and practice to encourage ongoing analysis regarding better practices for early intervention for children and adolescents experiencing a first-episode psychiatric disturbance. Methods: A search ...
6 Citations Source Cite