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Toward Guidelines for Evidence-Based Assessment of Depression in Children and Adolescents

Published on Aug 1, 2005in Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 4.36
· DOI :10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_3
Daniel N. Klein72
Estimated H-index: 72
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Lea R. Dougherty23
Estimated H-index: 23
Thomas M. Olino31
Estimated H-index: 31
We aim to provide a starting point toward the development of an evidence-based assessment of depression in children and adolescents. We begin by discussing issues relevant to the diagnosis and classification of child and adolescent depression. Next, we review the prevalence, selected clinical correlates, course, and treatment of juvenile depression. Along with some general considerations in assessment, we discuss specific approaches to assessing depression in youth (i.e., interviews, rating scales) and briefly summarize evidence on the reliability and validity of a few selected instruments. In addition, we touch on the assessment of several other constructs that are important in a comprehensive evaluation of depression (i.e., social functioning, life stress, and family history of psychopathology). Last, we highlight areas in which further research is necessary and conclude with some broad recommendations for clinical practice given the current state of the knowledge.
  • References (157)
  • Citations (229)
Published on May 11, 2006in Clinical Psychology-science and Practice 6.03
Peter J. Bieling27
Estimated H-index: 27
(St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton),
Willem Kuyken45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Exeter)
As with all systematic models of therapy, cognitive therapy distills a theory to the understanding of particular cases through the case formulation method. This article sets out criteria to evaluate whether cognitive case formulation follows the process of scientific inquiry, and it questions whether the formulation method meets these criteria. In terms of the evidence base for the cognitive theory that underpins cognitive case formulation, the research suggests that although the descriptive ele...
103 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2005in The Lancet 59.10
Neal D. Ryan78
Estimated H-index: 78
(University of Pittsburgh)
Summary Depressive disorders during youth occur frequently, are chronic and recurrent, and are associated with significant functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Two psychotherapeutic approaches—cognitive behavioural therapy and interpersonal therapy—are each better than wait-list or treatment-as-usual approaches. Several antidepressants have proven efficacious compared with placebo; however, more than half the studies comparing antidepressant treatment with placebo in children and ado...
132 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Journal of Abnormal Psychology 5.52
Benjamin L. Hankin48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
R. Chris Fraley43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
+ 1 AuthorsIrwin D. Waldman57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Emory University)
The authors examined the latent structure of depression in a population-based sample of children and adolescents. Youth's self-reports and parents' reports of the youth's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) major depressive symptoms were assessed via a structured clinical interview. The authors used Meehl's (1995) taxometric procedures to discern whether youth depression is dimensional or categorical. Taxometric analyses...
248 Citations Source Cite
Paul Rohde67
Estimated H-index: 67
Gregory N. Clarke45
Estimated H-index: 45
+ 2 AuthorsJohn R. Seeley79
Estimated H-index: 79
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13–17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were recruited from a county juvenile justice department and randomly assigned to the CWD-A or a life skills/tutoring control condition. Participants ...
158 Citations Source Cite
Joan L. Luby36
Estimated H-index: 36
Amy Heffelfinger12
Estimated H-index: 12
+ 2 AuthorsEdward L. Spitznagel71
Estimated H-index: 71
Objective: Childhood depression is widely underrecognized in primary health care settings. This phenomenon appears to increase with younger age. Evidence has been provided for a valid depressive syndrome among preschool children. Based on the need for the earliest possible identification of depression, the development of a brief screening measure to capture young children with markers of depression from these community settings was developed and tested. Method: A group of 174 preschool children ...
96 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 10, 2004in BMJ 27.60
Jon Jureidini16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Boston Children's Hospital),
Christopher J. Doecke9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UniSA: University of South Australia)
+ 3 AuthorsAnne Tonkin14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Adelaide)
How safe and effective are antidepressants in children and adolescents? The authors of this review have found disturbing shortcomings in the methods and reporting of trials of newer antidepressants in this patient group Antidepressants introduced since 1990, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine, have been used increasingly as first line treatment for depression in children.1 2 The safety of prescribingantidepressants to children (including adolescents) has been the ...
263 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2004in The Lancet 59.10
Craig Whittington27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UCL: University College London),
Tim Kendall24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Royal College of Psychiatrists)
+ 3 AuthorsEllen Boddington1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCL: University College London)
Summary Background Questions concerning the safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of depression in children led us to compare and contrast published and unpublished data on the risks and benefits of these drugs. Methods We did a meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials that evaluated an SSRI versus placebo in participants aged 5–18 years and that were published in a peer-reviewed journal or were unpublished and included in a review by the Commi...
829 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2003in Psychiatric Clinics of North America 2.28
Robert E. Drake92
Estimated H-index: 92
(Dartmouth College),
Stanley D. Rosenberg35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Dartmouth College)
+ 2 AuthorsWilliam C. Torrey26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Dartmouth College)
This article discusses the fundamental principles of evidence-based medicine: using the best available evidence, individualizing the evidence, attending to patient preferences, and expanding clinical expertise. These principles have important implications for the adoption of evidence-based practices in mental health care.
30 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2003in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 6.13
Alan E. Kazdin110
Estimated H-index: 110
(Yale University),
Matthew K. Nock70
Estimated H-index: 70
(Yale University)
Background: Mechanisms of therapeutic change are rarely studied in child and adolescent therapy. Our central thesis is that the study of mechanisms of treatment is an excellent investment for improving clinical practice and patient care. Indeed, extending treatment trials to clinical settings, without complementary research that studies why and how treatment works, could have great limitations. Method: In this article, we discuss the importance of studying mechanisms, the logical and methodologi...
516 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2003in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 6.13
Lindon J. Eaves95
Estimated H-index: 95
Judy L. Silberg40
Estimated H-index: 40
Alaattin Erkanli38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Duke University)
Background: Genotype · environment interaction (G · E) arises when genes influence sensitivity to the environment. G · E is easily recognized in experimental organisms that permit randomization of genotypes over fixed environmental treatments. Genotype‐environment correlation (rGE) arises when genetic effects create or evoke exposure to environmental differences. Simultaneous analysis of G · E and such active or evocative rGE in humans is intractable with linear structural models widely used in ...
124 Citations Source Cite
Cited By229
Published on Feb 8, 2019in Child Psychiatry & Human Development 2.07
Joseph Rich Cohen12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Felix K. So1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
+ 2 AuthorsBrenda A. Lee (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
Few studies have examined the incremental validity of multi-informant depression screening approaches. In response, we examined how recommendations for using a multi-informant approach may vary for identifying concurrent or prospective depressive episodes. Participants included 663 youth (AgeM = 11.83; AgeSD = 2.40) and their caregiver who independently completed youth depression questionnaires, and clinical diagnostic interviews, every 6 months for 3 years. Receiver operating characteristic (RO...
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Published on Aug 1, 2019in Journal of Research in Personality 2.57
Erin E. Long (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign), Jami Young (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania), Benjamin L. Hankin48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
Abstract Cross-lagged panel models (CLPM) are often used to study anxiety-depression co-occurrence. However, the CLPM aggregates within- and between-person variance, which can lead to incorrect estimates. The latent curve model with structured residuals (LCM-SR) parses these sources of variance. We utilized the LCM-SR to examine prospective associations between anxiety (physical, social, separation) and depression. Youth (N = 680; M age = 11.8; 55% female) completed measures of depression and an...
Source Cite
Joseph Rich Cohen12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Felix K. So1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
+ 1 AuthorsJami F. Young20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia)
Traditionally, screening research tests how well a given symptom inventory can identify a concurrent depressive episode. Although developmental psychopathology could inform screening protocols for a myriad of depression outcomes (e.g., prospective depressive episodes), approaches typically used in research make it difficult to translate these findings. Using a translational analytic approach and multiwave longitudinal study design, we examined how screening for cognitive vulnerabilities (ruminat...
3 Citations Source Cite
Amanda Levinson5
Estimated H-index: 5
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Brittany C. Speed4
Estimated H-index: 4
(SBU: Stony Brook University),
Greg Hajcak64
Estimated H-index: 64
(FSU: Florida State University)
Adolescent girls are at increased risk for depression, which is thought to result from the interaction of biological vulnerabilities and life stressors common to adolescent girls. A blunted late positive potential (LPP) to emotional stimuli (i.e., pleasant and unpleasant) has been associated with depressive symptoms and risk. The current study of adolescent girls examines the moderating effects of the LPP, a candidate biomarker of depression, of the link between life stress and increases in depr...
1 Citations Source Cite
Michael Mullarkey4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Texas at Austin),
Igor Marchetti12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UGent: Ghent University),
Christopher G. Beevers36
Estimated H-index: 36
Experiencing depression symptoms, even at mild to moderate levels, is associated with maladaptive outcomes for adolescents. We used network analysis to evaluate which symptoms (and associations between symptoms) are most central to adolescent depression. Participants were part of a large, diverse community sample (N = 1,409) of adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age. Network analysis was used to identify the most central symptoms (nodes) and associations between symptoms (edges) assessed by ...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 21, 2019in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3.41
Julianne M. Griffith2
Estimated H-index: 2
Julianne M. Griffith (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)+ 2 AuthorsBenjamin L. Hankin48
Estimated H-index: 48
Concurrent associations between parenting behaviors and youth depression are well established. A smaller body of work has demonstrated longitudinal associations between aspects of parenting and youth risk for depression; however, this limited longitudinal work has predominantly relied upon self- and parent-report questionnaire measures and is thus affected by biases related to retrospective recall and common method variance. The present study used behavioral observation measures of parenting and...
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Published on May 12, 2019in Developmental Psychobiology 1.85
Kelly M. Tu11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Xiaomei Li (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign), Joseph Rich Cohen12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2019in Clinical psychological science
Elissa J. Hamlat10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Hannah R. Snyder15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Brandeis University)
+ 1 AuthorsBenjamin L. Hankin48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
Evidence suggests that early pubertal timing may operate as a transdiagnostic risk factor (i.e., shared across syndromes of psychopathology) for both genders. The current study examined associations between pubertal timing and dimensional psychopathology, structured across different levels of three organizational models: (a) DSM-based syndrome model, (b) traditional model of internalizing and externalizing factors, and (c) bifactor (p factor) model, which includes a general psychopathology facto...
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Published on Apr 25, 2019
Andres De Los Reyes17
Estimated H-index: 17
Bridget A. Makol3
Estimated H-index: 3
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