Match!

Hen welfare in different housing systems

Published on Jan 1, 2011in Poultry Science2.027
· DOI :10.3382/ps.2010-00962
Donald C. Lay13
Estimated H-index: 13
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service),
R. M. Fulton13
Estimated H-index: 13
(MSU: Michigan State University)
+ 8 AuthorsRobert E. Porter19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
Abstract
Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare hens experience. Although the need to evaluate the influence of these factors on welfare is recognized, research is still in the early stages. We compared conventional cages, furnished cages, noncage systems, and outdoor systems. Specific attributes of each system are shown to affect welfare, and systems that have similar attributes are affected similarly. For instance, environments in which hens are exposed to litter and soil, such as noncage and outdoor systems, provide a greater opportunity for disease and parasites. The more complex the environment, the more difficult it is to clean, and the larger the group size, the more easily disease and parasites are able to spread. Environments such as conventional cages, which limit movement, can lead to osteoporosis, but environments that have increased complexity, such as noncage systems, expose hens to an increased incidence of bone fractures. More space allows for hens to perform a greater repertoire of behaviors, although some deleterious behaviors such as cannibalism and piling, which results in smothering, can occur in large groups. Less is understood about the stress that each system imposes on the hen, but it appears that each system has its unique challenges. Selective breeding for desired traits such as improved bone strength and decreased feather pecking and cannibalism may help to improve welfare. It appears that no single housing system is ideal from a hen welfare perspective. Although environmental complexity increases behavioral opportunities, it also introduces difficulties in terms of disease and pest control. In addition, environmental complexity can create opportunities for the hens to express behaviors that may be detrimental to their welfare. As a result, any attempt to evaluate the sustainability of a switch to an alternative housing system requires careful consideration of the merits and shortcomings of each housing system.
  • References (166)
  • Citations (197)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
86 Citations
65 Citations
77 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References166
Newest
#1K. Pohle (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
#2H. W. Cheng (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 12
Laboratory animal well-being can be im- proved by housing the animals in species-specific natu- ral or near-to-natural environments. An enriched en- vironment may have a similar effect on chickens. The purpose of this study was to examine if housing en- vironment (furnished cages vs. battery cages) effects the well-being of laying hens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old non-beak-trimmed White Leghorn W-36 chicks were reared and randomly assigned into battery cages or furnished cages at 19 wk of age...
39 CitationsSource
#1Rodrigo Labouriau (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 20
#2Joergen KjaerH-Index: 15
Last. Albert Johannes Buitenhuis (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the prese...
16 CitationsSource
#1Collette M. Thogerson (Purdue University)H-Index: 5
#2Patricia Y. Hester (Purdue University)H-Index: 25
Last. Joseph P. Garner (Purdue University)H-Index: 36
view all 8 authors...
Insufficient feeder space for laying hens could increase competition at the feed trough, leading to disrupted feeding, inadequate nutrient intake, stress, and reduced productivity. The effects of feeder space allocation (FSA) on physiology and productivity were evaluated in beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 480). They were obtained at 16.5 wk of age and housed on 4 tiers of shallow conventional cages. Five pullets/ cage were housed at a stocking density of 434 cm 2 /hen and a feeder space of 1...
14 CitationsSource
#1Collette M. Thogerson (Purdue University)H-Index: 5
#2Patricia Y. Hester (Purdue University)H-Index: 25
Last. Joseph P. Garner (Purdue University)H-Index: 36
view all 6 authors...
Insufficient feeder space for laying hens could increase competition at the feed trough, resulting in exclusion of low-ranking hens from the feeder. To test this hypothesis, the effects of feeder space allocation (FSA) on feeding behavior, aggression, feather scores, BW, and mortality were evaluated in a common commercial strain of egg-laying chickens. Beak-trimmed Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 480) were obtained as pullets at 16.5 wk of age and housed in conventional cages on 4 tiers. Five pullets/cag...
11 CitationsSource
#1Christine J Nicol (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 51
#2Gina Caplen (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 9
Last. William J. BrowneH-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
Animal welfare is usually assessed by measuring animals' responses to different environments or procedures. The alternative approach examines animal decision making, assuming that even domestic animals in artificial environments are able to integrate all relevant inputs and select in their own best interests. These two approaches to animal welfare assessment have been pursued largely in isolation over the past 30 years. If choice is taken as a particularly meaningful welfare measure, then valid ...
85 CitationsSource
#1Behnam Abasht (Iowa State University)H-Index: 14
#2Erin E. Sandford (Iowa State University)H-Index: 5
Last. Susan J. Lamont (Iowa State University)H-Index: 43
view all 11 authors...
Background The genome sequence and a high-density SNP map are now available for the chicken and can be used to identify genetic markers for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Effective MAS requires high linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and sustained marker-QTL LD over generations. This study used data from a 3,000 SNP panel to assess the level and consistency of LD between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over consecutive years in two egg-...
53 CitationsSource
#1G. B. Tactacan (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 6
#2Wilhelm Guenter (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 33
Last. James D. House (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 28
view all 5 authors...
77 CitationsSource
#1Krzysztof Flisikowski (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 18
#2Hermann Schwarzenbacher (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 13
Last. Ruedi Fries (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 32
view all 7 authors...
Feather pecking is a behavioural disorder of laying hens and has serious animal welfare and economic implications. One of the several aetiological hypotheses proposes that the disorder results from redirected exploratory behaviour. Variation in the gene encoding the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) has been shown to be associated with exploratory behaviour in several species, including in a passerine bird species. We therefore considered DRD4 as a candidate gene for feather pecking. We have annotated...
61 CitationsSource
#1Bradley A. Mullens (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 26
#2Jeb P. Owen (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 6
Last. Kimberly A. Klingler (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Establishment and spread of Ornithonyssus sylviarum were documented through time on sentinel hens (50 per house of 28,000–30,000 hens) in the first egg production cycle of three large commercial flocks (12 houses) of white leghorn hens. Mites were controlled using acaricide, and the impacts of treatment on mite populations and economic performance were documented. Mite prevalence and intensity increased rapidly and in tandem for 4–8 weeks after infestation. Intensity declined due to imm...
41 CitationsSource
Between 1992 and 2003, a period of 12 years after the definitive ban on battery cages in Switzerland, more than 10,000 replacement chicks and laying hens were examined postmortem. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of viral diseases, mostly due to a reduction in Marek's disease, but there was a marked increase in bacterial diseases, particularly since 1999, mainly due to colisepticaemia in young laying hens. There was a steady decrease in parasitic infections, but the incidence of...
25 CitationsSource
Cited By197
Newest
#1Maria Soroko (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences)H-Index: 1
#2Daniel Zaborski (West Pomeranian University of Technology)H-Index: 5
The goal of the study was to assess whether tonic immobility (TI)-induced stress reactions in laying hens can be reduced by probiotic supplementation and if the changes in body surface temperature, as a stress indicator, are genetically dependent and can be detected using infrared thermography (IRT). Seventy-one white and 70 brown hens were used. Hens were randomly assigned to three treatments at 1-day-old: beak trimmed and fed a regular diet; non-beak trimmed and fed a regular diet; and non-bea...
Source
#1Ghais Zriki (University of Montpellier)
#2Rumsaïs Blatrix (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 16
Last. Lise Roy (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 9
view all 3 authors...
BACKGROUND: Analysis of the poorly explored food webs of henhouse-dwelling arthropods would improve biological control against the poultry red mite (PRM) Dermanyssus gallinae (de Geer). This study aimed to identify trophic links among indigenous predatory arthropods, PRM, and alternative preys. In-vitro predation tests were carried out to assess (1) the ability of indigenous predators to feed on PRM juvenile and adult stages in two physiological statuses (unfed and freshly blood-fed) in the abse...
Source
#1Amy C. Murillo (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 3
#2Alireza Abdoli (UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Last. Alec C. Gerry (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 16
view all 5 authors...
The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is one of the most common and damaging ectoparasites of poultry. As an obligate blood feeding mite, the northern fowl mite can cause anaemia, slower growth, and decreased egg production of parasitized birds. However, the impact of mites or other ectoparasites on hen behaviour or welfare is not well studied. Here, we use activity sensors (three-axis accelerometers) affixed to individual birds to continuously record hen movement before, during, and ...
Source
#1Damian Konkol (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences)
#2Ewa Popiela (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Mariusz Korczyński (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences)H-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the welfare and performance of laying hens kept in a furnished cage system equipped with additional feeders. A total of 72 Lohmann Brown hens was randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups. Each group consisted of 6 cages housing 3 birds per cage (18 birds per group). Group I (GI) was a control group without an extra feeder in the cages. Experimental groups GII, GIII, GIV contained one, two or three additional feeders in the cages, respectively. The...
Source
#1Julia Mehlhorn (HHU: University of Düsseldorf)H-Index: 7
Last. Stefanie PetowH-Index: 4
view all 2 authors...
Abstract During domestication, many different chicken breeds have been developed that show many alterations compared to their wild ancestors and large variability in parameters such as body size, colouring, behaviour and even brain morphology. Among the breeds, one can differentiate between commercial and non-commercial strains, and commercial strains do not usually show variability as high as that in non-commercial breeds but exhibit a high production rate of eggs (or meat). The breeding of hig...
Source
#1Haidong Wei (NEAU: Northeast Agricultural University)H-Index: 2
#2Yanju Bi (NEAU: Northeast Agricultural University)H-Index: 3
Last. Jun Bao (NEAU: Northeast Agricultural University)H-Index: 5
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Keel fracture has adverse effects on welfare, behavior, health, production performance and egg quality of laying hens. To investigate this, 90 healthy Lohmann white laying hens with normal keel bones at 17 weeks of age (WOA) were used in this study and housed individually in furnished cages. All hens were marked with fractured keel (FK) or normal keel (NK) based on the keel bone status through palpation at five time-points (22, 27, 32, 37 and 42 WOA). After the palpation, the behavior w...
Source
#1Angelica Van Goor (Iowa State University)H-Index: 5
#2Graham A. J. Redweik (Iowa State University)H-Index: 1
Last. Melha Mellata (Iowa State University)H-Index: 11
view all 6 authors...
Abstract With the majority of conventional cage (CC) laying facilities transitioning into cage-free (CF) systems in the near future, it is important to characterize biological markers of health in layers housed in commercial housings for sustainable production. The objectives of this study were to compare i) blood markers, that is heterophil:lymphocyte (H:L) ratios and susceptibility to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and ii) lung and ceca microbiome between hens at different maturity s...
Source
The aim of the study was to assess the behaviour of chicks of three different breeds of laying hens differing in the activity, emotional reactivity, and environmental preferences. Another objective was to answer the question whether the behavioural differences between adult birds would be evident already in the chick period or whether they are an effect of the further modifying impact of the environment. 60 green-legged partridge, 60 Polbar, and 60 Leghorn chicks were used in the experiments. Th...
Source
#1F.X. Philippe (Laval University)H-Index: 1
#2Y.Mahmoudi (Laval University)
Last. Stéphane Godbout (Laval University)H-Index: 14
view all 8 authors...
Abstract The increasing public concern for animal welfare has pushed the poultry sector to progressively replace conventional battery cages (CC) for laying hens with alternative systems such as enriched cages (EC) and aviaries (AV). The aim of this study was to compare laying performance, egg location, and egg quality associated with these three housing types. The experiment was conducted in twelve pilot-scale chambers fitted out with one of the three treatments. Each chamber housed 30 Lohmann L...
1 CitationsSource
#1Lisa FijnH-Index: 2
Last. Saskia S. ArndtH-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
Feather pecking is a prominent issue in the commercial egg industry, associated with economic losses and welfare problems. A non-systematic literature search suggests that studies on feather pecking are predominantly concerned with applied research goals. That is to say, they aim to solve or diminish the effects of this problematic behavior by orienting towards practical approaches. The strong emphasis on this research approach has skewed our knowledge of the causes of feather pecking in relatio...
Source