Cell interactions in barb ridges of developing chick downfeather and the origin of feather branching

Published on Jun 1, 2007in Italian Journal of Zoology 0.60
· DOI :10.1080/11250000701246674
L. Alibardi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bologna)
Abstract
The epidermis of developing feathers comprises outer and inner periderm, subperiderm and germinal layer. The inner periderm gives origin to sheath and barb ridge vane cells that contain alpha‐keratin and form a belt around feather filaments. This produces mechanical resistance, forcing the inner epidermal cell layers to fold inward and form barb ridges. Mesenchymal‐epidermal contacts occur from the mesenchymal core to external regions of barb ridges and involve thin cytoplasmic processes (filopodia) from mesenchymal cells. Subperiderm cells produce feather keratin that remains in derived barb and barbule cells displaced into two barbule plates and a ramus. Barb medullary cells undergo lipid degeneration while barbule cells accumulate feather keratin and cornify. Supporting cells surround barb and barbule cells and later degenerate leaving separate barbules, while marginal plate cells disappear leaving separate barbs. Caspase‐3, a marker for apoptosis, is absent in cells of barb ridges. Degenerating cells ...
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  • Citations (13)
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References33
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
Abstract The present ultrastructural study shows how cells organize to form the complex structure of downfeathers in chick embryos. The embryonic epidermis of the apical part of feather filaments folds inward forming barb ridges which extend toward the base of the feather. The stratification of epidermal cells in barb ridges is maintained but the basal layer loses most of the germinal activity. New cells for the growth of feather filaments are mainly produced in its basal part. In barb ridges on...
22 Citations
Mingke Yu5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Zhicao Yue10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 6 AuthorsCheng-Ming Chuong60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Southern California)
ABSTRACT The feather is a complex epidermal organ with hierarchical branches and represents a multi-layered topological transformation of keratinocyte sheets. Feathers are made in feather follicles. The basics of feather morphogenesis were previously described (Lucas and Stettenheim, 1972). Here we review new molecular and cellular data. After feather buds form (Jiang et al., this issue), they invaginate into the dermis to form feather follicles. Above the dermal papilla is the proliferating epi...
88 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2000in Cell Death & Differentiation 8.00
Saskia Lippens28
Estimated H-index: 28
,
Mark M. Kockx43
Estimated H-index: 43
+ 9 AuthorsDanny Huylebroeck47
Estimated H-index: 47
Epidermal differentiation does not involve the pro-apoptotic executioner caspases, but is associated with caspase-14 induction and processing
187 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1982in Journal of Experimental Zoology 2.43
W.Michael O'Guin3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of South Carolina),
Loren W. Knapp14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of South Carolina),
Roger H. Sawyer29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of South Carolina)
We have determined the distribution of alpha and beta keratins in avian scutate scales using SDS-PAGE and indirect immunofluorescence with non-cross-reacting rabbit antisera prepared to both alpha and beta keratins. Contrary to previous studies, we find that alpha keratin is definitely present in the epidermis of the outer scale surface as well as that of the inner surface and hinge region of the scale. In fact, all six alpha keratin polypeptides found in the whole scale epidermis are also prese...
50 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2002in The Quarterly Review of Biology 2.32
Richard O. Prum44
Estimated H-index: 44
(University of Kansas),
Alan H. Brush18
Estimated H-index: 18
ABSTRACT Progress on the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers has been hampered by conceptual problems and by the lack of plesiomorphic feather fossils. Recently, both of these limitations have been overcome by the proposal of the developmental theory of the origin of feathers, and the discovery of primitive feather fossils on nonavian theropod dinosaurs. The conceptual problems of previous theories of the origin of feathers are reviewed, and the alternative developmental theory i...
193 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2002in Journal of Morphology 1.71
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
Little is known of the lipid content of β-keratin-producing cells such as those of feathers, scutate scales, and beak. The sequence of epidermal layers in some apteria and in interfollicular epidermis in the zebrafinch embryo (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis) was studied. Also, the production of β-keratin in natal down feathers and beak was ultrastructurally analyzed in embryos from 3–4 to 17–18 days postdeposition, before hatching. Two layers of periderm initially cover the embryo, but there are...
48 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 15, 2003in Journal of Experimental Zoology 2.43
Cheng-Ming Chuong60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Southern California),
Ping Wu21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Southern California)
+ 5 AuthorsLianhai Hou8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
In this special issue on the Evo-Devo of amniote integuments, Alibardi has discussed the adaptation of the integument to the land. Here we will discuss the adaptation to the sky. We first review a series of fossil discoveries representing intermediate forms of feathers or feather-like appendages from dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds from the Jehol Biota of China. We then discuss the molecular and developmental biological experiments using chicken integuments as the model. Feather forms can be modula...
54 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2005in Developmental Dynamics 2.51
Roger H. Sawyer29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of South Carolina),
Loren Rogers1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of South Carolina)
+ 2 AuthorsLoren W. Knapp14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of South Carolina)
The formation of scales and feathers in reptiles and birds has fascinated biologists for decades. How might the developmental processes involved in the evolution of the amniote ectoderm be interpreted to shed light on the evolution of integumental appendages? An Evo–Devo approach to this question is proving essential to understand the observation that there is homology between the transient embryonic layers covering the scale epidermis of alligators and birds and the epidermal cell populations o...
38 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2003in Journal of Investigative Dermatology 6.45
Rajas Chodankar9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Southern California),
Chung-Hsing Chang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Southern California)
+ 5 AuthorsRandall B. Widelitz39
Estimated H-index: 39
(University of Southern California)
Skin appendage formation represents a process of regulated new growth. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling of developing chicken skin demonstrated the presence of localized growth zones, which first promote appendage formation and then move within each appendage to produce specific shapes. Initially, cells proliferate all over the presumptive skin. During the placode stage they are organized to form periodic rings. At the short feather bud stage, the localized growth zones shifted to the posterior and th...
55 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 1994in Cell and Tissue Research 3.04
Michael Kressel4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Zurich),
Peter Groscurth34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Zurich)
The occurrence and spatial distribution of intracellular DNA fragmentation was investigated by in situ 3′ end labelling of DNA breaks in K562 cells treated in such a way to cause either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. The localisation of DNA breaks was examined by confocal laser microscopy and compared with the electron-microscopic appearance of the cells. In addition, the number of cells with fragmented DNA was counted and compared with the number of dead cells, as determined by the nigrosin ...
120 Citations Source Cite
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  • Citations (13)
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Cited By13
Published on Jan 1, 2011in Acta Zoologica 1.07
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
Alibardi, L. 2011. Cell junctions during morphogenesis of feathers: general ultrastructure with emphasis on adherens junctions. —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 92: 89–100. The present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study analyzes the cell junctions joining barb/barbule cells versus cell junctions connecting supportive cells in forming feathers. Differently from the epidermis or the sheath, desmosomes are not the prevalent junctions among feather cells. Numerous adherens junctions, some gap j...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2009in Journal of Morphology 1.71
Paul F. A. Maderson20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Brooklyn College),
Willem J. Hillenius11
Estimated H-index: 11
(College of Charleston)
+ 1 AuthorsCarla C. Dove1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Smithsonian Institution)
Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549–562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, β- and α-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation...
26 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2010in Annals of Anatomy-anatomischer Anzeiger 1.85
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna)
Summary The present study has focused on the distribution and ultrastructure of gap and tight junctions responsible for the formation of the barb/barbule branching in developing feathers using immunocytochemical detection. Apart from desmosomes, both tight and gap junctions are present between differentiating barb/barbule cells and during keratinization. While gap junctions are rare along the perimeter of these cells, tight junctions tend to remain localized in nodes joining barbule cells and be...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2007in Annals of Anatomy-anatomischer Anzeiger 1.85
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna)
Summary The present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study on developing and regenerating feathers in the chick, zebrafinch and quail describes the formation of alpha-keratin cells in the sheath and their transition into beta-keratin cells in the calamus. In the first stages of feather formation cells are produced in the lower part of the follicle, migrate upward and form the elongating sheath of the feather filaments that grows outside the follicle. Sheath cells initially (anagen) contain...
15 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2010in Anatomical Science International 1.33
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
The present ultrastructural study on follicle of regenerating feathers of four different avian species focuses on the formation and cytology of the rachis. Epithelial cells within the bottom part of the follicle (the collar) are contacted from mesenchymal cells of the dermal papilla. The most basal part of the collar is formed by a circular epithelium containing germinal cells, while in the upper ramogenic part of the collar barb ridges are generated. Epithelial cells rest upon a basement membra...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2008in Italian Journal of Zoology 0.60
L. Alibardi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bologna)
An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study on developing lizard claws has been done. Claws originate from an epidermal thickening covering the tip of digits under which mesenchymal cells aggregate. The outer side of the dorsal terminal scale of a digit gives origin to the unguis, and suggests that claws are modified scales sustained by the last phalanx. Beneath four–seven layers of embryonic alpha‐keratin cells, beta‐keratin cells are differentiated but no shedding complex is formed. Beta‐k...
17 Citations Source Cite
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna),
Mattia Toni19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Bologna)
Abstract Feathers are the most complex epidermal derivatives among vertebrates. The present review deals with the origin of feathers from archosaurian reptiles, the cellular and molecular aspects of feather morphogenesis, and focus on the synthesis of keratins and associated proteins. Feathers consist of different proteins among which exists a specialized group of small proteins called beta-keratins. Genes encoding these proteins in the chick genome are distributed in different chromosomes, and ...
45 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2009in Italian Journal of Zoology 0.60
L. Alibardi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bologna)
The present microscopic study on follicles of regenerating feathers describes the pattern of morphogenesis responsible for the formation of symmetric and asymmetric feathers, filoplumes and bristles. Barb ridges are generated in the ventral locus of the follicle and merge into a rachis located in the dorsal side after helicoidal growth along the ramogenic collar. Asymmetric feathers result from the elongation of rami of larger size on one side with respect to the opposite side of the follicle be...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2009in Anatomical Science International 1.33
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
During most of feather growth (anagen), the dermal papilla stimulates the collar epithelium to give rise to feather keratins accumulating cells that form most of the corneous material of barbs and the rachis. Aside from the induction of differentiated cells of the feather, the distal part of the papilla forms a loose connective tissue that nourishes the growing feather, termed the pulp. In the last stages of feather growth, the pulp undergoes a process of re-absorption and leaves empty cavities ...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2014in Journal of Morphology 1.71
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna),
Ping Wu21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Southern California),
Cheng-Ming Chuong60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Southern California)
Feathers regenerate from stem cells localized in a region of the follicle indicated as the bulge of the collar. Stem cells are slow cycling cells and some of these cells can be identified after labeling experiments using 5-bromo-deoxyuridine to detect label retaining cells (5BrdU LRCs). The present electron microscopic analysis of 5BrdU LRCs has described the ultrastructural characteristics of small cells present in the bulge region of the follicle in regenerating feathers of chickens that inclu...
1 Citations Source Cite