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Cell interactions in barb ridges of developing chick downfeather and the origin of feather branching

Published on Jun 1, 2007in Italian Journal of Zoology 0.60
· DOI :10.1080/11250000701246674
L. Alibardi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bologna)
Abstract
The epidermis of developing feathers comprises outer and inner periderm, subperiderm and germinal layer. The inner periderm gives origin to sheath and barb ridge vane cells that contain alpha‐keratin and form a belt around feather filaments. This produces mechanical resistance, forcing the inner epidermal cell layers to fold inward and form barb ridges. Mesenchymal‐epidermal contacts occur from the mesenchymal core to external regions of barb ridges and involve thin cytoplasmic processes (filopodia) from mesenchymal cells. Subperiderm cells produce feather keratin that remains in derived barb and barbule cells displaced into two barbule plates and a ramus. Barb medullary cells undergo lipid degeneration while barbule cells accumulate feather keratin and cornify. Supporting cells surround barb and barbule cells and later degenerate leaving separate barbules, while marginal plate cells disappear leaving separate barbs. Caspase‐3, a marker for apoptosis, is absent in cells of barb ridges. Degenerating cells ...
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  • Citations (13)
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References33
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2006in Annals of Anatomy-anatomischer Anzeiger 1.85
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
Summary The present study deals with the cell structure and three-dimensional organization of barb and barbule cells within barb ridges of down feathers and juvenile feathers in the chick embryo. Juvenile feathers represent the second generation of feathers in the wing, and replace down feathers some weeks after hatching. Within the follicle of juvenile feathers, at 16–18 days of embryonic development, barb ridges are more numerous than in down feathers. Barb ridges of juvenile feathers contain ...
22 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2006in Journal of Anatomy 2.48
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna),
Roger H. Sawyer30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of South Carolina)
The present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study on the embryonic feathers of the zebrafinch, an altricial passerine bird, describes cellular differentiation of developing downfeathers. Barb ridges are folds of the original epidermis of the embryonic feather germ in which the basal–apical polarity of epidermal cells is upset. The result is the loss of most germinal activity of basal cells of the barb ridges so that only the embryonic epidermal layers remain. The more external layer is th...
25 Citations Source Cite
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
Abstract The present ultrastructural study shows how cells organize to form the complex structure of downfeathers in chick embryos. The embryonic epidermis of the apical part of feather filaments folds inward forming barb ridges which extend toward the base of the feather. The stratification of epidermal cells in barb ridges is maintained but the basal layer loses most of the germinal activity. New cells for the growth of feather filaments are mainly produced in its basal part. In barb ridges on...
22 Citations
Published on Feb 1, 2005in Developmental Dynamics 2.51
Roger H. Sawyer30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of South Carolina),
Loren Rogers1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of South Carolina)
+ 2 AuthorsLoren W. Knapp17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of South Carolina)
The formation of scales and feathers in reptiles and birds has fascinated biologists for decades. How might the developmental processes involved in the evolution of the amniote ectoderm be interpreted to shed light on the evolution of integumental appendages? An Evo–Devo approach to this question is proving essential to understand the observation that there is homology between the transient embryonic layers covering the scale epidermis of alligators and birds and the epidermal cell populations o...
39 Citations Source Cite
Mingke Yu5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Zhicao Yue10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 6 AuthorsCheng-Ming Chuong61
Estimated H-index: 61
The feather is a complex epidermal organ with hierarchical branches and represents a multi-layered topological transformation of keratinocyte sheets. Feathers are made in feather follicles. The basics of feather morphogenesis were previously described (Lucas and Stettenheim, 1972). Here we review new molecular and cellular data. After feather buds form (Jiang et al., this issue), they invaginate into the dermis to form feather follicles. Above the dermal papilla is the proliferating epidermal co...
88 Citations Source Cite
Mingke Yu5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Zhicao Yue10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 6 AuthorsCheng-Ming Chuong61
Estimated H-index: 61
(University of Southern California)
ABSTRACT The feather is a complex epidermal organ with hierarchical branches and represents a multi-layered topological transformation of keratinocyte sheets. Feathers are made in feather follicles. The basics of feather morphogenesis were previously described (Lucas and Stettenheim, 1972). Here we review new molecular and cellular data. After feather buds form (Jiang et al., this issue), they invaginate into the dermis to form feather follicles. Above the dermal papilla is the proliferating epi...
90 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 15, 2003in Journal of Experimental Zoology 2.43
Randall B. Widelitz40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Southern California),
Ting Xin Jiang17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Southern California)
+ 5 AuthorsCheng-Ming Chuong61
Estimated H-index: 61
(University of Southern California)
Darwin's theory describes the principles that are responsible for evolutionary change of organisms and their attributes. The actual mechanisms, however, need to be studied for each species and each organ separately. Here we have investigated the mechanisms underlying these principles in the avian feather. Feathers comprise one of the most complex and diverse epidermal organs as demonstrated by their shape, size, patterned arrangement and pigmentation. Variations can occur at several steps along ...
55 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 15, 2003in Journal of Experimental Zoology 2.43
H. Bragulla10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Free University of Berlin),
Ruth M. Hirschberg7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Free University of Berlin)
Accessory organs of the integument are locally modified parts of the potentially feather-bearing skin in birds (e.g., the rhamphotheca, claws, or scales), and of the potentially hairy skin in mammals (e.g., the rhinarium, nails, claws, or hooves). These special parts of the integument are characterised by a modified structure of their epidermal, dermal and subcutaneous layers. The developmental processes of these various integumentary structures in birds and mammals show both similarities and di...
35 Citations Source Cite
Cited By13
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Anatomical Science International 1.33
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
The molting cycle of feathers includes an anagen (growth) stage, a likely catagen stage where the feather follicles degenerate, and a resting stage where fully grown feathers remain in their follicles and are functional before molting. However, the cytological changes involved in the resting and molting stages are poorly known, so the results of an ultrastructural analysis of these processes in adult chick feathers are presented here. The study showed that the dermal papilla shrinks, and numerou...
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Published on May 1, 2017in Protoplasma 2.46
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
Feathers are corneous microramifications of variable complexity derived from the morphogenesis of barb ridges. Histological and ultrastructural analyses on developing and regenerating feathers clarify the three-dimensional organization of cells in barb ridges. Feather cells derive from folds of the embryonic epithelium of feather germs from which barb/barbule cells and supportive cells organize in a branching structure. The following degeneration of supportive cells allows the separation of barb...
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Current Biology 9.25
Lida Xing18
Estimated H-index: 18
(China University of Geosciences),
Ryan C. McKellar5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Regina)
+ 11 AuthorsAlexander P. Wolfe47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Alberta)
Summary In the two decades since the discovery of feathered dinosaurs [1–3], the range of plumage known from non-avialan theropods has expanded significantly, confirming several features predicted by developmentally informed models of feather evolution [4–10]. However, three-dimensional feather morphology and evolutionary patterns remain difficult to interpret, due to compression in sedimentary rocks [9, 11]. Recent discoveries in Cretaceous amber from Canada, France, Japan, Lebanon, Myanmar, an...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2014in Journal of Morphology 1.71
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna),
Ping Wu23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Southern California),
Cheng-Ming Chuong61
Estimated H-index: 61
(University of Southern California)
Feathers regenerate from stem cells localized in a region of the follicle indicated as the bulge of the collar. Stem cells are slow cycling cells and some of these cells can be identified after labeling experiments using 5-bromo-deoxyuridine to detect label retaining cells (5BrdU LRCs). The present electron microscopic analysis of 5BrdU LRCs has described the ultrastructural characteristics of small cells present in the bulge region of the follicle in regenerating feathers of chickens that inclu...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2011in Acta Zoologica 1.07
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
Alibardi, L. 2011. Cell junctions during morphogenesis of feathers: general ultrastructure with emphasis on adherens junctions. —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 92: 89–100. The present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study analyzes the cell junctions joining barb/barbule cells versus cell junctions connecting supportive cells in forming feathers. Differently from the epidermis or the sheath, desmosomes are not the prevalent junctions among feather cells. Numerous adherens junctions, some gap j...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2010in Annals of Anatomy-anatomischer Anzeiger 1.85
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna)
Summary The present study has focused on the distribution and ultrastructure of gap and tight junctions responsible for the formation of the barb/barbule branching in developing feathers using immunocytochemical detection. Apart from desmosomes, both tight and gap junctions are present between differentiating barb/barbule cells and during keratinization. While gap junctions are rare along the perimeter of these cells, tight junctions tend to remain localized in nodes joining barbule cells and be...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2010in Anatomical Science International 1.33
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna)
The present ultrastructural study on follicle of regenerating feathers of four different avian species focuses on the formation and cytology of the rachis. Epithelial cells within the bottom part of the follicle (the collar) are contacted from mesenchymal cells of the dermal papilla. The most basal part of the collar is formed by a circular epithelium containing germinal cells, while in the upper ramogenic part of the collar barb ridges are generated. Epithelial cells rest upon a basement membra...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2009in Anatomical Science International 1.33
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
During most of feather growth (anagen), the dermal papilla stimulates the collar epithelium to give rise to feather keratins accumulating cells that form most of the corneous material of barbs and the rachis. Aside from the induction of differentiated cells of the feather, the distal part of the papilla forms a loose connective tissue that nourishes the growing feather, termed the pulp. In the last stages of feather growth, the pulp undergoes a process of re-absorption and leaves empty cavities ...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2009in Journal of Morphology 1.71
Paul F. A. Maderson20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Brooklyn College),
Willem J. Hillenius13
Estimated H-index: 13
(College of Charleston)
+ 1 AuthorsCarla C. Dove1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Smithsonian Institution)
Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549–562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, β- and α-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation...
27 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2009in Italian Journal of Zoology 0.60
L. Alibardi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bologna)
The present microscopic study on follicles of regenerating feathers describes the pattern of morphogenesis responsible for the formation of symmetric and asymmetric feathers, filoplumes and bristles. Barb ridges are generated in the ventral locus of the follicle and merge into a rachis located in the dorsal side after helicoidal growth along the ramogenic collar. Asymmetric feathers result from the elongation of rami of larger size on one side with respect to the opposite side of the follicle be...
7 Citations Source Cite