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Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome
Published on Apr 1, 2001in Diabetes Care 13.40
· DOI :10.2337/diacare.24.4.683
Bo Isomaa45
Estimated H-index: 45
Peter Almgren62
Estimated H-index: 62
+ 5 AuthorsLeif Groop125
Estimated H-index: 125
OBJECTIVE —To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —A total of 4,483 subjects aged 35–70 years participating in a large family study of type 2 diabetes in Finland and Sweden (the Botnia study) were included in the analysis of cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome. In subjects who had type 2 diabetes ( n = 1,697), impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) ( n = 798), or insulin-resistance with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) ( n = 1,988), the metabolic syndrome was defined as presence of at least two of the following risk factors: obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or microalbuminuria. Cardiovascular mortality was assessed in 3,606 subjects with a median follow-up of 6.9 years. RESULTS —In women and men, respectively, the metabolic syndrome was seen in 10 and 15% of subjects with NGT, 42 and 64% of those with IFG/IGT, and 78 and 84% of those with type 2 diabetes. The risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was increased threefold in subjects with the syndrome ( P P P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS —The WHO definition of the metabolic syndrome identifies subjects with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and offers a tool for comparison of results from different studies.
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  • Cited By (3770)
Published on Jan 1, 1995in Clinical Science 5.22
Jan Skov Jensen26
Estimated H-index: 26
Knut Borch-Johnsen96
Estimated H-index: 96
(University of Copenhagen)
+ 1 AuthorsBo Feldt-Rasmussen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Copenhagen)
1. In epidemiological studies microalbuminuria, i.e. slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, predicts increased atherosclerotic vascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with a systemic transvascular albumin leakiness. In animal experiments the outflux of albumin and lipids to the arterial wall are highly correlated, and both are elevated in atherosclerosis. 2. All participants were recru...
185 Citations Source Cite
Geoffrey Rose42
Estimated H-index: 42
(University of London),
Henry W. Blackburn1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of London)
2,433 Citations
Published on Sep 1, 1996in Journal of Internal Medicine 6.75
Ivana Zavaroni32
Estimated H-index: 32
L. Bonini1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 6 AuthorsGerald M. Reaven112
Estimated H-index: 112
(Stanford University)
Objectives. To see if the cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic variables defined as comprising Syndrome X varied as a function of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate in a healthy population. Design. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting. A factory in Italy. Subjects. Two hundred and twenty-five healthy volunteers, 115 men and 110 women. Outcome measures. Measurements were made of the plasma glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose, fasting triglyceride (TG) and high density l...
33 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 1995in Circulation 18.88
Johanna Kuusisto72
Estimated H-index: 72
Leena Mykkänen55
Estimated H-index: 55
+ 1 AuthorsMarkku Laakso100
Estimated H-index: 100
Background Both hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria have been shown to increase coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but the interaction among hyperinsulinemia, microalbuminuria, and- the risk for CHD has not been investigated in previous studies. Methods and Results The risk of CHD in relation to hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria was examined in a cohort of 1069 elderly nondiabetic subjects from Kuopio, east Finland, during 3.5 years of follow-up. The overall incidence of CHD death was 2.8%...
214 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 14, 1997in JAMA Internal Medicine 19.99
Sean F. Dinneen31
Estimated H-index: 31
Hertzel C. Gerstein81
Estimated H-index: 81
Objectives: To critically analyze the literature linking microalbuminuria with total and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in non—insulin— dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and to quantify the risk. Methods: A combination of retrieval techniques (MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, and handsearching published bibliographies) was used to find all relevant articles based on title and abstract and "Methods" sections. Unpublished data on albumin excretion rate were sought from large NIDDM coho...
720 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 15, 1997in Journal of Clinical Investigation 13.25
Markku Lehto27
Estimated H-index: 27
Tiinamaija Tuomi24
Estimated H-index: 24
+ 18 AuthorsA Hyrkkö1
Estimated H-index: 1
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3 is a dominantly inherited form of diabetes, which is often misdiagnosed as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Phenotypic analysis of members from four large Finnish MODY3 kindreds (linked to chromosome 12q with a maximum lod score of 15) revealed a severe impairment in insulin secretion, which was present also in those normoglycemic family members who had inherited the MODY3 gene. In co...
163 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1998in Diabetes 7.27
Leena Mykkänen55
Estimated H-index: 55
Daniel J. Zaccaro22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 3 AuthorsS. M. Haffner51
Estimated H-index: 51
Microalbuminuria is associated with excess cardiovascular mortality in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Patients with NIDDM and microalbuminuria are more insulin resistant than those without microalbuminuria. However, the relationship between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria in patients with NIDDM could be due to hyperglycemia, which can cause both insulin resistance and an increase in albumin excretion rate. Little is known about microalbuminuria and insulin resistance in nondiabe...
299 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1991in Diabetes Care 13.40
Ralph A. DeFronzo129
Estimated H-index: 129
Eleuterio Ferrannini80
Estimated H-index: 80
Diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with systolic/diastolic hypertension, and a wealth of epidemiological data suggest that this association is independent of age and obesity. Much evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and essential hypertension is hyperinsulinemia. Thus, when hypertensive patients, whether obese or of normal body weight, are compared with age- and weight-matched normotensive control subjects, a heightened plasma insulin response to a glucose challenge is consis...
3,740 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 21, 1997in Diabetologia 6.02
Angela D. Liese52
Estimated H-index: 52
(University of Münster),
Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Wake Forest University)
+ 5 AuthorsGerardo Heiss104
Estimated H-index: 104
(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
The association of a parental history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the multiple metabolic syndrome (MMS) was studied in a population survey of middle-aged adults. The eligible population was drawn from the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a population-based, bi-ethnic, multi-centre cohort study. The MMS was defined as a multivariate, categorical phenotype of co-occurring diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. MMS cases (n = 356) were compar...
94 Citations Source Cite
Cited By3770
Published on Jan 1, 2014
South Asian’s (SA) have been observed to have higher insulin resistance followed by an altered state of metabolism; however, few studies have attempted to explore the acculturation process and dietary practices of immigrant SA’s in the U.S. 1401 South Asian Americans living in Maryland from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Iran, and Afghanistan were selected from two community health clinics to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in this study group and its indica...
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Paul A. Sobotka40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Ohio State University),
David G. Harrison120
Estimated H-index: 120
(Vanderbilt University Medical Center),
Marat Fudim12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
In the past several years, renal denervation has proven to be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension (HTN). Unfortunately the procedure does not always lower blood pressure and many patients continue to need drugs for HTN. While there are several potential explanations for this persistent elevation of blood pressure after renal denervation, one is that the renal nerves were not completely ablated. Another is that the HTN was not caused by increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in ...
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Published on May 1, 2008in Journal of The National Medical Association 0.48
David Martins17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science),
Naureen Tareen12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science)
+ 2 AuthorsKeith C. Norris53
Estimated H-index: 53
The tendency for selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors to occur in clusters has led to the description of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The relative impact of the individual risk factor on the overall relative risk (RR) for cardiovascular death from metabolic syndrome is not well established and may differ across the different racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) mortality follow-up (NH2MS), we determined the prevalence ...
29 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2006
Margareta Norberg1
Estimated H-index: 1
Type 2 diabetes is a significant health problem because of its high prevalence and strong association with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. An increase of type 2 diabetes is predicted due to ...
4 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2006
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Published on Jan 1, 2014in Gaceta Medica De Mexico 0.34
Claudia Jessica Espinoza Hernández1
Estimated H-index: 1
Rosa María Lacy Niebla1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsMaría Elisa Vega Memije3
Estimated H-index: 3
La psoriasis es una enfermedad inflamatoria cronica asociada a un aumento en el riesgo cardiovascular. El SM constituye un factor predictor para riesgo cardiovascular. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del SM asociado a psoriasis en una poblacion mexicana. Metodologia: Estudio descriptivo de casos y controles, constituido por 209 sujetos. Se obtuvo, de todos los participantes, informacion demografica, clinica, antropometrica y de laboratorio. Se realizo el diagnostico de SM de acuerdo con la d...
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Published on May 1, 2006in Herz 0.94
Markolf Hanefeld56
Estimated H-index: 56
Wolfgang Metzler1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsFrank Schaper15
Estimated H-index: 15
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