Variation in essential oil composition of rose‐scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) distilled by different distillation techniques

Published on Mar 1, 2005in Flavour and Fragrance Journal1.377
· DOI :10.1002/ffj.1414
Kiran G. D. Babu3
Estimated H-index: 3
V. K. Kaul2
Estimated H-index: 2
The rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) cultivar ‘Kelkar’, grown in the agroclimatic conditions of the western Himalayas, was processed by various hydrodistillation methods, which revealed that water distillation of the herb gave a higher oil yield (0.16–0.22%) than the water–steam distillation (0.09–0.12%) and steam distillation methods (0.06–0.18%). The samples were analysed by GC and GC–MS to study and compare the essential oil compositions which revealed that the oil distilled by the water–steam distillation method contained a higher content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.7%), followed by steam distillation without cohobation and without recycling (1.5%). A higher content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.4%) was found in cumulative oil followed by ‘direct oil’ (4.2%) obtained by steam distillation with cohobation and without recycling of hydrosol, followed by the water–steam distillation method (3.4%). ‘Decanted oil’, recovered from redistilling the hydrosol obtained by steam distillation with cohobation and without recycling, contained maximum monoterpene cyclic ethers (1.1%) and carbonyl content (9.9%), closely followed by water–steam distillation method (1.1% and 7.2%, respectively). Steam distillation without cohobation and without recycling of hydrosol yielded essential oil with a higher percentage of esters (21.1%), followed by ‘direct oil’ (16.6%). Lower ester content (5.3%) was noticed in ‘decanted oil’, followed by oil distilled by steam distillation with cohobation and with recycling (11.8%) and oil distilled in a Clevenger apparatus by the water distillation method (12.2%), whereas maximum total alcohols were found in the ‘decanted oil’ (75.1%), followed by oil from the Clevenger apparatus (72.8%) and steam distillation with cohobation and with recycling (69.1%). A lower alcohol content was found in the ‘direct oil’ (55.2%) closely followed by ‘cumulative oil’ (55.8%). The variation in total alcohol and ester contents in geranium oil samples, distilled by using different processing techniques on pilot scale distillation, is mainly due to hydrolysis of some volatile constituents. This was further supported by acid values of the oils, along with other physicochemical properties, such as specific gravity, optical rotation, refractive index, solubility in alcohol, ester value with cold and hot methods, estimation of ester content as geranyl formate and geranyl tiglate, ester number after acetylation, and ester number after formylation with aceto-formic acid and formic acid. Methods have been standardized and proposed for distillations of specific quality, e.g. ester-rich and alcohol-rich geranium oils, to meet different requirements of the industry. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • References (23)
  • Citations (56)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
8,529 Citations
50 Citations
16 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
Composition chimique detaillee en composes aromatiques, dans differentes huiles essentielles existant en Inde, comparaison avec les memes huiles extraites dans d'autres pays, quand elles existent (cardamone, sauge, huile de gomme de galbanum et d'huile de palmarosa extraite d'une graminee)
657 Citations
#1Kiran G. D. BabuH-Index: 3
#2Vijay K KaulH-Index: 1
Last. Paramvir Singh AhujaH-Index: 33
view all 3 authors...
Production of essenti al oil s and hydrosols by common hydrod istill ation prompted and fac il itated deve lop ment of a low cost, ponable. mini di still ati on apparatu s (MDA) made of stainl ess stee l (SS) with a modul ar design for easy and rapid install ati on components de pcnding on need. MDA can di still 110 kg pl ant materi al per batch of a var iety of hedvy and li ght essenti al oil s hy different heating modes, such as direct firing by fu el wood in easil y constructibl e count ry ma...
11 Citations
#1Kiran G. D. BabuH-Index: 3
#2Bikram SinghH-Index: 34
Last. Virendra SinghH-Index: 21
view all 4 authors...
Experiments were conducted on field distillation unit to distil rose oil and rose water from the fresh flowers of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) under different pressures and temperatures to study and compare the essential oil composition by GC-FID. The monoterpene hydrocarbons and esters were found to be in traces, and stearoptene content was found to be higher in the oil distilled under high pressure, as compared to oil produced under atmospheric pressure. In general, the percentage of tot...
76 CitationsSource
#1B. R. Rajeswara Rao (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)H-Index: 16
#2Pran N. Kaul (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)H-Index: 13
Last. S. Ramesh (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) plants infected with little leaf disease, probably caused by mycoplasma, were firstly observed during 1996–1998. The plants exhibited symptoms of reduced leaf/petiole size (little leaf), yellowing and bunching of leaves and cessation of plant growth, resulting in plant mortality. Plant parameters, viz. plant height, plant spread, number of branches, leaf size, leaf weight, etc., were adversely affected by little leaf disease, leading to significant reducti...
9 CitationsSource
#1B. R. Rajeswara Rao (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)H-Index: 16
#2K. P. SastryH-Index: 3
Last. Srinivasaiyer RameshH-Index: 16
view all 6 authors...
The volatile flower oils of three genotypes of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) commercially cultivated at a high altitude (2200 m above MSL) location (Kodaikanal) in India were investigated by GC and GC–MS. Freshly collected flowers of genotypes 1, 2 and 3 on distillation produced oil yields of 0.32%, 0.34% and 0.50%, respectively. The flower oil of genotype 1 was richer in α-pinene (1.7%), (Z) and (E)-rose oxides (1.3% and 0.6%), isomenthone (6.8%), citronellol (43.8%), citronellyl form...
23 CitationsSource
#1Bhaskaruni R. Rajeswara Rao (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)H-Index: 11
#2Pran N. Kaul (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)H-Index: 13
Last. S. RameshH-Index: 6
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Comminuted (chopped into small pieces or churned into a semi-paste in a mixer-grinder) and uncomminuted shoot and leaf oils of rose-scented geranium were compared for their yield and composition. Leaves produced higher oil yields (0.28-0.38%) than shoots (0.15-0.24%). Leaf oil was richer in geraniol, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, citronellyl and geranyl tiglates, while the shoot oil was richer in (Z)-3-hexenol, cis-rose oxide, isomenthone, citronellol, citronellyl and geranyl formates. Chopped sho...
5 CitationsSource
#1Esmort H. ChisowaH-Index: 6
Last. Dudley I. Farman (University of Greenwich)H-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) was propagated by tissue culture and cuttings. The hydrodistilled oils from the two groups of plants were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The two oils contained similar major components in relative amounts except citronellol which differed by a large margin. The major components in the oils from plants raised by tissue culture and cuttings were citronellol (36.1%; 42.8%), citronellyl formate (8.3%; 11.5%), geraniol (9.2%; 9.1%) and isomenthone (9.9%; 7....
2 CitationsSource
#1Luigino Doimo (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 3
#2R. J. Fletcher (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 5
Last. Bruce R. D'Arcy (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 28
view all 3 authors...
This paper is the first detailed report of straight chain and branched esters in Australian geranium oil. Hydrodistillation of 41 samples of Australian-grown rose geranium (Pelargoniun hybrid) produced oils containing four detectable parent alcohols; 2-phenylethanol (0.9%), citronellol (16.9%), nerol (0.9%) and geraniol (11.3%) and 47 of their esters. The esters present were formates (19.7%), tiglates (4.0%), propanoates (2.4%), butyrates (1.6%), iso-esters (1.2%), acetates (0.8%) and other este...
3 CitationsSource
#1M. Lis-Balchin (LSBU: London South Bank University)H-Index: 17
#2G. Roth (University of Vienna)H-Index: 1
Abstract The leaf oils of the leaves of two Pelargonium species, P. papilionaceum L. L'Herit. and P. vitifolium L. L'Herit. (Geraniaceae) and a cultivar ‘Sweet Rosina,’ were found to contain citronellic acid, ranging from 27.9% to 89.3%. The essential oils were obtained by both steam distillation and using solvent extraction in both hexane and petroleum spirit and the citronellic acid was identified by comparison with a standard using GC and also GC/MS. The presence of citronellic acid has not b...
7 CitationsSource
#1Luigino DoimoH-Index: 3
#2Darren C. Mackay (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 1
Last. R. J. Fletcher (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 5
view all 5 authors...
SummaryConcentrations of citronellol and geraniol in essential oil from rose geranium (Pelargonium hybrid) were monitored monthly over four years using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Geraniol concentrations fell in winter and citronellol concentrations increased in spring. The citronellol/geraniol (C:G) ratio was a more sensitive indicator of change in oil composition than the concentration of either alcohol in isolation. C:G ratios rose sharply if the minimum air temperature (Tmin) fell ...
19 CitationsSource
Cited By56
#1Mohsen Gavahian (Yahoo!)H-Index: 1
#1Mohsen GavahianH-Index: 13
Last. Asgar FarahnakyH-Index: 22
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The applicability of ohmic heating, as a volumetric heating technique, has been explored in various sectors of the food industry. The use of ohmic heating for essential oil extraction is among its emerging applications. This chapter overviews the recent progress in this area of research, discusses the mechanisms involved in ohmic-based essential oil extraction processes, explains the effective process parameters, highlights their benefits, and explains the considerations to address the ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Matthew E. Bergman (U of T: University of Toronto)
#2Angel Chavez (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)
Last. Michael A. Phillips (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
: Pelargonium graveolens is a wild predecessor to rose-scented geranium hybrids prized for their essential oils used as fragrances and flavorings. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here we present metabolic evidence that at least two distinct monoterpene biosynthetic pathways contribute to their volatile profiles; namely, cyclic p-menthanes such as (-)-isomenthone and acyclic monoterpene alcohols such as geraniol and (-)-citronellol and their derivatives (referred to here as cit...
#1Yaoyao PengH-Index: 2
#2Karen S. BishopH-Index: 24
Last. Siew Young QuekH-Index: 29
view all 3 authors...
Feijoa is an aromatic fruit and the essential oil from feijoa peel could be a valuable by-product in the juicing industry. An initial comparison of the essential oil extraction methods, steam-distillation and hydro-distillation, was conducted. The volatile compounds in the essential oils from four feijoa cultivars were identified and semi-quantified by GC-MS and the aroma active compounds in each essential oil were characterized using SPME-GC-O-MS. Hydro-distillation, with a material to water ra...
2 CitationsSource
#2Jyoti Singh JadaunH-Index: 6
Last. Sudhir P. SinghH-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Geraniaceae family plants are highly reputed aromatic and medicinal perennial branched herbs. The high economic value of these plants is due to their secondary metabolites, especially essential oil of foliage, which is a complex mixture of volatile phytochemicals, such as terpenes, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and phenols. The main phytoconstituents of the essential oil belong to the terpenoid group of metabolites, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their esters. Of the...
#1Kakuyou Ogawa (Daiichi University of Pharmacy)H-Index: 1
#2Akira Tashima (Daiichi University of Pharmacy)H-Index: 1
Last. Osamu Morinaga (Daiichi University of Pharmacy)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Vanilla flavour is familiar to consumers through foods, cosmetics, household products and some medicines. Vanilla flavouring agents typically contain vanillin or its analogue ethyl vanillin. Our previous study revealed that the inhalation of eugenol, which contains a vanillyl group, has an appetite-enhancing effect, and the inhalation of aroma compounds containing the vanillyl group or its analogues led to increased food intake in mice. Here, we found that vanillin, ethyl vanillin and eugenol sh...
4 CitationsSource
The optimal conditions (40°С, 16 MPa, process duration of 30 min) for the extraction of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her essential oil using supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide are determined. GC-MS analysis shows higher concentrations of the target components (e.g., citronellol, geraniol) in the product in comparison to the oil obtained using a traditional method (steam distillation). Additional components, such as camphene, sabinene, and others are also present in the product obtained by the extract...
#2Girija KaushalH-Index: 2
Last. Rajender S. SangwanH-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is a perennial herb that produces a high value essential oil of fragrant significance due to the characteristic compositional blend of rose-oxide and acyclic monoterpenoids in foliage. Recently, the plant has also been shown to produce tartaric acid in leaf tissues. Rose-scented geranium represents top-tier cash crop in terms of economic returns and significance of the plant and plant products. However, there has hardly been any study on its metabolism and...
10 CitationsSource
#1Madhulika BhagatH-Index: 8
#2Monica SangralH-Index: 1
Last. Kushal BinduH-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
Melaleuca viminalis (syn. Callistemon viminalis, red bottle brush) and Melaleuca armillaris (white Bottle brush) belong to the family Myrtaceae and are reported for their traditional medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to explore and compare the chemical compositions and biological properties of these two species.
#1Mijat Božović (Sapienza University of Rome)H-Index: 7
#2Alberto Navarra (Sapienza University of Rome)H-Index: 1
Last. Rino Ragno (Sapienza University of Rome)H-Index: 31
view all 5 authors...
AbstractSteam distillation is known to be the most prevalent method of essential oil extraction. Despite many studies on extraction methods, there is no report about the impact of distillation process duration on the yield and oil quality. A new 24-h steam distillation process for extraction of plant essential oils is presented. For improving the total yield, prolonged and continued isolation was used. A selection of plant species from Lamiaceae and Apiaceae families was subjected to direct stea...
11 CitationsSource