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Michelson interferometric studies of protein and virus crystal growth

Published on Sep 1, 1996in Journal of Crystal Growth1.573
· DOI :10.1016/0022-0248(95)00554-4
Yu. G. Kuznetsov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
A Malkin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
+ 1 AuthorsAlexander McPherson51
Estimated H-index: 51
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract
Abstract In situ laser Michelson interferometry was utilized to investigate the growth kinetics and surface morphology in canavalin, thaumatin, and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) crystallization. Interferometric patterns and kinetic measurements from growing macromolecular crystals as small as 20 μm were obtained. This study shows that for the crystallization of canavalin, dislocations are the sources of growth steps on the surfaces of growing crystals. Supersaturation dependencies of the normal growth rates, tangential growth step velocities, and the slopes of the dislocation hillocks were determined. The kinetic coefficient β was estimated for canavalin grown from two different precipitant systems to be 3.2 × 10 −4 and 5.3 × 10 −4 cm s −1 , respectively. The change in activities of dislocation sources under different growth conditions was analyzed.
  • References (10)
  • Citations (13)
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References10
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#1Donald C ReynoldsH-Index: 1
#2Stanley J CzyzakH-Index: 1
This chapter delineates growth of crystals. Many of the devices that are used on a daily basis employ a single crystal element as the heart of the mechanism. A good example is the “quartz crystal” watch. A quartz crystal is made to vibrate under an applied voltage. Its vibrations are coupled to a sensing circuit and translated into seconds, minutes, and hours by using and counting the known resonant frequency of vibration of the crystal. The chapter examines crystal-growing methods and the equip...
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#1Yu. G. Kuznetsov (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 19
#2A Malkin (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 18
Last. Alexander McPherson (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 51
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Abstract In situ laser Michelson interferometry was utilized to investigate mechanisms of growth and surface morphology in protein and virus crystallization, These included plant proteins canavalin and thaumatin and turnip yellow mosaic virus. The experimental apparatus allowed us to obtain interferometric patterns and investigate growth kinetics from growing macromolecular crystals as small as 20 μm. For the crystallization of canavalin, dislocations are the sources of growth steps on the surfa...
42 CitationsSource
#1Mary A. Canady (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 7
#2John W. Day (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 47
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Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) was purified from Chinese cabbage and crystallized in a form that permits high resolution structural analysis using X-ray diffraction. The crystals have a hexagonal bipyramidal morphology and often achieve dimensions of 1.0 × 1.0 × 0.5 mm. The crystals appear to be of hexagonal space group P6222 with a = b = 525 A, c=315 A, but we cannot strictly rule out the possibility that the space group is P622. They appear different than any crystals of TYMV previously rep...
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The optical path length distribution of the solution around a growing lysozyme crystal was observed in situ using a Michelson interferometer of the reflection type. From the interferograms, a concentration profile around a growing crystal and the growth rate were obtained and thus, we could evaluate the diffusion coefficient of the lysozyme molecules to be 1.59 × 10-10 m2/s. The measurement of the viscosity of the solution rendered it possible to estimate the Stokes radius of the diffusing entit...
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Laser Michelson interferometry was applied to study the elementary growth mechanism of protein crystals. The results for the (101) face of tetragonal lysozyme show that for supersaturations σ higher than 1.6, growth proceeds by two-dimensional nucleation. However, at lower supersaturations growth is governed by dislocation sources. The observed non-linearity of the step velocity versus supersaturation dependence for supersaturations up to 1.2 is proved to be due to strong impurity effects. At σ ...
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Over the past 20 years a variety of technological advances in X-ray crystallography have shortened the time required to determine the structures of large macromolecules (i.e., proteins and nucleic acids) from several years to several weeks or days. However, one of the remaining challenges is the ability to produce diffraction-quality crystals suitable for a detailed structural analysis. Although the development of automated crystallization systems combined with protein engineering (site-directed...
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