Michelson interferometric studies of protein and virus crystal growth

Published on Sep 1, 1996in Journal of Crystal Growth1.573
· DOI :10.1016/0022-0248(95)00554-4
Yu. G. Kuznetsov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
A Malkin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
+ 1 AuthorsAlexander McPherson51
Estimated H-index: 51
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract In situ laser Michelson interferometry was utilized to investigate the growth kinetics and surface morphology in canavalin, thaumatin, and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) crystallization. Interferometric patterns and kinetic measurements from growing macromolecular crystals as small as 20 μm were obtained. This study shows that for the crystallization of canavalin, dislocations are the sources of growth steps on the surfaces of growing crystals. Supersaturation dependencies of the normal growth rates, tangential growth step velocities, and the slopes of the dislocation hillocks were determined. The kinetic coefficient β was estimated for canavalin grown from two different precipitant systems to be 3.2 × 10 −4 and 5.3 × 10 −4 cm s −1 , respectively. The change in activities of dislocation sources under different growth conditions was analyzed.
  • References (10)
  • Citations (13)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
59 Citations
95 Citations
143 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Donald C ReynoldsH-Index: 1
#2Stanley J CzyzakH-Index: 1
This chapter delineates growth of crystals. Many of the devices that are used on a daily basis employ a single crystal element as the heart of the mechanism. A good example is the “quartz crystal” watch. A quartz crystal is made to vibrate under an applied voltage. Its vibrations are coupled to a sensing circuit and translated into seconds, minutes, and hours by using and counting the known resonant frequency of vibration of the crystal. The chapter examines crystal-growing methods and the equip...
392 Citations
#1Yu. G. Kuznetsov (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 19
#2A Malkin (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 18
Last. Alexander McPherson (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 51
view all 4 authors...
Abstract In situ laser Michelson interferometry was utilized to investigate mechanisms of growth and surface morphology in protein and virus crystallization, These included plant proteins canavalin and thaumatin and turnip yellow mosaic virus. The experimental apparatus allowed us to obtain interferometric patterns and investigate growth kinetics from growing macromolecular crystals as small as 20 μm. For the crystallization of canavalin, dislocations are the sources of growth steps on the surfa...
42 CitationsSource
#1Mary A. Canady (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 7
#2John W. Day (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 47
Last. Alexander McPherson (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 51
view all 3 authors...
Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) was purified from Chinese cabbage and crystallized in a form that permits high resolution structural analysis using X-ray diffraction. The crystals have a hexagonal bipyramidal morphology and often achieve dimensions of 1.0 × 1.0 × 0.5 mm. The crystals appear to be of hexagonal space group P6222 with a = b = 525 A, c=315 A, but we cannot strictly rule out the possibility that the space group is P622. They appear different than any crystals of TYMV previously rep...
14 CitationsSource
#1Satoru Miyashita (Tohoku University)H-Index: 20
#2Komatsu Hiroshi (Tohoku University)H-Index: 23
Last. Toshitaka Nakada (Tohoku University)H-Index: 16
view all 4 authors...
The optical path length distribution of the solution around a growing lysozyme crystal was observed in situ using a Michelson interferometer of the reflection type. From the interferograms, a concentration profile around a growing crystal and the growth rate were obtained and thus, we could evaluate the diffusion coefficient of the lysozyme molecules to be 1.59 × 10-10 m2/s. The measurement of the viscosity of the solution rendered it possible to estimate the Stokes radius of the diffusing entit...
46 CitationsSource
#1Peter G. VekilovH-Index: 49
#2Mitsuo AtakaH-Index: 22
Last. T. KatsuraH-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Laser Michelson interferometry was applied to study the elementary growth mechanism of protein crystals. The results for the (101) face of tetragonal lysozyme show that for supersaturations σ higher than 1.6, growth proceeds by two-dimensional nucleation. However, at lower supersaturations growth is governed by dislocation sources. The observed non-linearity of the step velocity versus supersaturation dependence for supersaturations up to 1.2 is proved to be due to strong impurity effects. At σ ...
59 CitationsSource
#1L. N. Rashkovich (MSU: Moscow State University)H-Index: 17
#2B.Yu. Shekunov (MSU: Moscow State University)H-Index: 4
Abstract It has been established that the velocity υ of steps on the (001) faces depends nonlinearly on the supersaturation σ: as σ increases, dυ dσ decreases. For the steps of different orientation the dependences υ(σ) are different and the hillock shape changes with increasing σ. It has been proved that υ is independent of the interstep distance; the behaviour of υ(σ) is not associated with the bulk or surface diffusion processes. In order to interpret the experiments, the supersaturation depe...
51 CitationsSource
#1K. Onuma (Tohoku University)H-Index: 6
#2Katsuo Tsukamoto (Tohoku University)H-Index: 27
Last. Ichiro Sunagawa (Tohoku University)H-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The normal dissolution rates, the slopes and the average velocities of dissolution steps of etch pits on the (111) face of a K-alum crystal, originating from dislocations with Burgers vector 〈110〉, were measured in relation to the surface undersaturations. From the mutual relations, it was shown that the dissolution was controlled by both diffusion and surface kinetic processes, although the contribution of the latter process was smaller than in the case of growth. It was also demonstra...
27 CitationsSource
#1K. Maiwa (Tohoku University)H-Index: 5
#2Katsuo Tsukamoto (Tohoku University)H-Index: 27
Last. Ichiro Sunagawa (Tohoku University)H-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
Abstract In situ measurements of normal growth rates R , slopes p , and step advancing rates v = R / p of the spiral growth hillocks generated from two types of dislocations, screw ( b = [111] ) and mixed ( b = 〈110〉 ), were made on the (111) faces of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 crystals growing from an aqueous solution at different flow velocity, u . These two types of dislocations were identified also in situ by stress birefringence microscopy. It was found that: (1) The growth hillocks originated from the sc...
60 CitationsSource
A technique has been developed to automatically measure normal growth rates as low as 3 × 10-9 cm/s and higher, the tangential growth rates and hillock slopes. The method was applied to the (101) ADP growth in the kinetic regime at various supersaturations 0.05% 0.35%, regular growth were observed. Increase in pH results in a shift of these supersaturation ranges to lower values. After an exposure at σ σ∗, the face still does not grow for several minutes. If this new value σ > σ∗ is high enough,...
38 CitationsSource
35 Citations
Cited By13
#1Alexander McPherson (UCI: University of California, Irvine)H-Index: 51
#2Lawrence J. DeLucas (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 25
Over the past 20 years a variety of technological advances in X-ray crystallography have shortened the time required to determine the structures of large macromolecules (i.e., proteins and nucleic acids) from several years to several weeks or days. However, one of the remaining challenges is the ability to produce diffraction-quality crystals suitable for a detailed structural analysis. Although the development of automated crystallization systems combined with protein engineering (site-directed...
11 CitationsSource
#1Matthew J. Jones (MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)H-Index: 10
#2Joachim Ulrich (MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)H-Index: 27
Defining terminology and nomenclature in such a manner that important features and properties of a system or phenomena for which a description is sought are succinctly captured is a task fraught with difficulty, in particular when dealing either with complex or subtle issues. The recent exchanges in the literature regarding the terminology applied to co-crystals and solvates (pseudopolymorphs) is a case in point. The result of these discussions is that there is still no consistent usage, and per...
11 CitationsSource
#1Da-Chuan Yin (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 19
#2Yuko InatomiH-Index: 4
Last. Nobuko I. Wakayama (National Institute for Materials Science)H-Index: 10
view all 7 authors...
Interferometry is a widely used technique for real-time monitoring of concentration variation during processes in a solution like crystal growth and dissolution. This paper reports a protein concentration measurement system using a conventional Mach–Zehnder interferometer that allows monitoring the time course evolution of the protein concentration distribution during the processes of crystallization or dissolution. The demonstrated method showed improved reliability and versatility in that it (...
9 CitationsSource
#1Sunil Verma (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology)H-Index: 13
#2Paul J. ShlichtaH-Index: 1
Abstract This review summarizes the optical, electromagnetic, and acoustic imaging techniques that are in use or available for mapping convection, temperature, and solute concentration in the solution around a growing crystal and for measuring the growth rate and the facial micromorphology of the crystal itself. By way of introduction, the need for such mapping, the value of optical, electromagnetic, and acoustic techniques, and the comparative value of two- vs. three-dimensional mapping are dis...
41 CitationsSource
#1Cui Hai-Liang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
#2Yu Yong (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Kang Qi (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
During the process of lysozyme protein crystallization with batch method, the macroscopic flow field of solid/liquid system was observed by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, a normal growth rate of (110) face and local flow field around a single protein crystal were obtained by a long work distance microscope. The experimental results showed that the average velocity, the maximal velocity of macroscopic solid/liquid system and the velocity of local flow field around single protein c...
3 CitationsSource
#1H.-X Cang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
#2R.-C Bi (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
Based on a space experiment of lysozyme crystallization, a two-dimensional model was designed to study numerically the post-nucleation transport in the liquid/liquid diffusion crystallization of proteins. The initial concentration distributions for protein and salt were calculated with a purely diffusive process before nucleation. The results of simulation show that a noticeable depletion zone of protein also exists around a growing crystal in liquid/liquid diffusion chamber under 0g condition. ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Lawrence J. DeLucas (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 25
Fueled by initial space shuttle results, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been supporting fundamental studies of macromolecular crystal growth since 1985. The majority of this research is directed at understanding the relationship between experimental variables and important crystal characteristics. The program has resulted in new methods and technology that will benefit the crystallography community's effort to meet the ever-increasing demand for protein structural i...
9 CitationsSource
#1P.J Eggington (Imperial College London)
#2Alan G. Taylor (Imperial College London)H-Index: 23
Abstract Laser reflectometry has been used for the first time as an in situ real-time monitor of the dissolution of the (0 0 1) face of KClO 3 crystals into aqueous solution. During the dissolution process the reflected light was subject to constructive and destructive interference caused by the movement of crystal boundaries. This produced Fabry–Perot oscillations similar to the widely exploited phenomenon used in the laser reflectometry-based metrology of semiconductor surfaces. The method is ...
#1Abel Moreno (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 18
#2Manuel Soriano-García (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 14
In attempts to obtain protein crystals of a sufficient size for structural studies, lack of knowledge of the physicochemical properties of protein solutions and of their crystal-growth behaviour lead to a bottleneck for drug design as well as for X-ray crystallography. Most formal investigations on crystal-growth phenomena have been focused on equilibrium studies, where the protein is soluble, and on the kinetics of crystal growth, which is related to both nucleation and crystal-growth phenomena...
2 CitationsSource
#1Peter G. Vekilov (UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville)H-Index: 49
#2Franz Rosenberger (UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville)H-Index: 30
Last. B. R. Thomas (UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
Abstract In situ high-resolution optical interferometry of lysozyme crystal growth reveals that under steady external conditions, the local growth rate R , vicinal slope p and step velocity are not steady but fluctuate by several times their average values. The variations in p , which is proportional to the local step density, indicate that these fluctuations occur through the dynamic formation of step bunches. Our previous work with unstirred solutions has shown that the fluctuation amplitude o...
26 CitationsSource