Reducing the probability of ship grounding: which measure to undertake?
The analytic hierarchy process has been used to elicit the knowledge of maritime transport stakeholders, such as seafarers, authorities, insurers and academics, regarding human factors and risk-reducing measures for ship groundings. Measures against human fatigue, alcohol abuse, language barriers, poor bridge management and safety climate have been compared with regard to costs and benefits. The measures are discussed in the context of large ships on a voyage of at least 24 h containing Bridge Resource Management. The study shows that stakeholders consider the costs of the measures to reduce human fatigue at sea surpass the benefits. Measures against alcohol abuse are regarded as the most cost–benefit efficient. Also, the stakeholders consider the watch scheme 8–4–4–8 to be less fatiguing than the 12–12 watch scheme. In addition, the results of the study support previous findings that inadequate manning levels contribute the most to human fatigue within the bridge management team.