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Efficient and Allele-Specific Genome Editing of Disease Loci in Human iPSCs

Published on Mar 1, 2015in Molecular Therapy8.402
· DOI :10.1038/mt.2014.226
Cory Smith6
Estimated H-index: 6
(JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine),
Leire Abalde-Atristain3
Estimated H-index: 3
(JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
+ 6 AuthorsZhaohui Ye36
Estimated H-index: 36
(JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Sources
Abstract
Efficient and precise genome editing is crucial for realizing the full research and therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Engineered nucleases including CRISPR/Cas9 and transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) provide powerful tools for enhancing gene-targeting efficiency. In this study, we investigated the relative efficiencies of CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs in human iPSC lines for inducing both homologous donor-based precise genome editing and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated gene disruption. Significantly higher frequencies of NHEJ-mediated insertions/deletions were detected at several endogenous loci using CRISPR/Cas9 than using TALENs, especially at nonexpressed targets in iPSCs. In contrast, comparable efficiencies of inducing homologous donor-based genome editing were observed at disease-associated loci in iPSCs. In addition, we investigated the specificity of guide RNAs used in the CRISPR/Cas9 system in targeting disease-associated point mutations in patient-specific iPSCs. Using myeloproliferative neoplasm patient-derived iPSCs that carry an acquired JAK2-V617F point mutation and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency patient-derived iPSCs that carry an inherited Z-AAT point mutation, we demonstrate that Cas9 can specifically target either the mutant or the wild-type allele with little disruption at the other allele differing by a single nucleotide. Overall, our results demonstrate the advantages of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in allele-specific genome targeting and in NHEJ-mediated gene disruption.
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References46
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#2Athurva Gore (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 14
Last. Zhaohui Ye (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 36
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Human iPSCs provide renewable cell sources for human biology and disease research and the potential for developing gene and cell therapy. Realization of this potential will rely in part on our ability to precisely edit or engineer the human genome in an efficient way. Recent developments in designer endonuclease technologies such as zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 endon...
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#1Adrian Veres (Harvard University)H-Index: 12
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Summary Genome editing has attracted wide interest for the generation of cellular models of disease using human pluripotent stem cells and other cell types. CRISPR-Cas systems and TALENs can target desired genomic sites with high efficiency in human cells, but recent publications have led to concern about the extent to which these tools may cause off-target mutagenic effects that could potentially confound disease-modeling studies. Using CRISPR-Cas9 and TALEN targeted human pluripotent stem cell...
307 CitationsSource
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Bacterial type II CRISPR-Cas9 systems have been widely adapted for RNA- guided genome editing and transcription regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet their in vivo target specificity is poorly understood. Here we mapped genome-wide binding sites of a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) from Streptococcus pyogenes loaded with single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Each of the four sgRNAs tested targets dCas9 to tens to thousands of genomic sites, characterized by a 5-nucl...
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The utility of genome editing technologies for disease modeling and developing cellular therapies has been extensively documented, but the impact of these technologies on mutational load at the whole-genome level remains unclear. We performed whole-genome sequencing to evaluate the mutational load at single-base resolution in individual gene-corrected human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones in three different disease models. In single-cell clones, gene correction by helper-dependent a...
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This paper describes the use of paired Cas9 nickases to edit the mammalian genome with no detectable off-target effects.
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Summary Targeted genome editing with engineered nucleases has transformed the ability to introduce precise sequence modifications at almost any site within the genome. A major obstacle to probing the efficiency and consequences of genome editing is that no existing method enables the frequency of different editing events to be simultaneously measured across a cell population at any endogenous genomic locus. We have developed a method for quantifying individual genome-editing outcomes at any site...
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